Case Back Doors

All stub tenons are V2" long

465/b

All that remains to complete the case of the tool cabinet is the back. The back assembly is made with simple stub tenon and groove joints. For step-by-step instructions on how to make this strong joint, take a look at the "How-To" below.

STRENGTHENING THE CASE. Besides closing in the case, the back also adds strength. You can see what I mean in the exploded view at right. First, it fits into the rabbets cut in the sides of the case. This prevents the case from racking. After the back is glued up, a series of dadoes and grooves are cut to fit over the horizontal dividers to keep the large case rigid and square.

BUILDING THE BACK. I began by cutting grooves on the inside edges of the stiles and rails. Then stub tenons can be cut on each end of the rails. Note: The joinery for the door frames is identical to the back. To save time, you could cut the door rails and stiles here as well.

Once the joinery is complete, I cut a small arch in the bottom rail to match the front skirt, as shown

All stub tenons are V2" long

465/b

Joinery Cabinet Skirting Shadowline
NOTE: Back stiles 29 and rails are made from 3/a"-thick stock. Panels are Va" plywood

b TOP VIEW

¡m/ //■ f 1,

h

Shadow line j on back outside —> edges of frame

-Vie y

in detail 'c.' Finally, W plywood panels are cut to fit the grooves. Now the back assembly can be glued together (including the panels). Note: Bottom rail (K) sits 3/s" up

Plain Bottom Railing

from the end of the rails, as in detail 'a.' Finally, I routed grooves to fit over the dividers and a small shadow line around the outside edges, as in detail 'b.'

How-To: Stub Tenon & Groove Panels

NOTE: Groove is cut on both edges of middle rail

Woodworking How Cut Middle Edge

Grooves. The first step is to cut a V2"-deep, centered groove on the inside edge of the rails and stiles. The groove is sized to match the thickness of V4" plywood.

//\\ /

/sy/ y-,

® li/X

' Aux.

fence

/ / NOTE:

/ / Set the

/ / rip fence

/ / as a stop

-The stub tenon should' be the same thickness as the plywood panels

Grooves. The first step is to cut a V2"-deep, centered groove on the inside edge of the rails and stiles. The groove is sized to match the thickness of V4" plywood.

Tenons. The next step is to cut the stub tenons on the ends of the rails. Position the rip fence as a stop and cut the stub tenons with a dado blade.

Panels. The center panels are sized to fit between the stiles and rails. Plywood panels can be glued in place. Sol id-wood door panels are allowed to "float" in the grooves.

Solid-Wood Doors

With the case complete, I moved on to building the doors. Like I mentioned earlier, the joinery here is the same as the case back. There's one difference between the doors and the back. The panels in the doors are solid wood, instead of plywood. They're solid wood for appearance. I wanted them to look as good when they were open as closed. And to make them stand out from the frame, I selected straight-grained (riftsawn) stock for the frame parts and used highly figured quartersawn wood for the door panels.

DEALING WITH WOOD MOVEMENT. With the parts cut to size, you can then cut the joinery on the stiles (N, O) and rails (P). Because the panels (Q) are solid-wood pieces, they are cut slightly narrower than the grooves so they can expand and contract.

Next, I cut a rabbet on all four sides of the panels to form a tongue, as in detail 'b.' The rabbets are cut a little wider than the grooves to create a shadow line so that they stand out even more.

At this point, you can assemble the doors. I applied glue only to the stiles and rails. The panels need to "float" in the grooves to expand and contract. But to keep the panels centered in the frame, I applied a dot of glue at the top and the bottom of the panels and used some

Hinges are surface-mounted on the case

TOP SECTION VIEW

1'A"-dia. brass knob

NOTE: Door stiles and rails are made from -thick stock. Door panels are ¡6" thick

Hinges are surface-mounted on the case

TOP SECTION VIEW

NOTE: Door stiles and rails are made from -thick stock. Door panels are ¡6" thick

Extra width of reliefs creates shadow line

Extra width of reliefs creates shadow line

gap

TOP SECTION r VIEW

rSwwHMWWIri. (A)

Lrowr N-' > -■

£

'v

/ /

Ç Brass SECTION door-catch zr spacers while clamping. It's also a good idea to stain them as well, as you can see in the shop tips below.

HANGING THE DOORS. The doors can now be hung in the case. To do this, I cut shallow notches in the sides of the doors, as in detail 'c,' to hold the hinges. The notches are 1/8" less than the thickness of the hinge knuckle. The hinges will be surface mounted on the inside of the case. Then the doors can be trimmed to fit. All that's left is to attach the knobs and catches, as in detail 'd.'

Shop Tips: Great Panels

{ To keep the panels centered in the doors, I placed a dot of glue in the center of the tongue and used thin spacers while gluing up the door.

{ Staining the panels before assembling the doors prevents unfinished areas from appearing as the panels expand and contract seasonally.

FALSE FRONT

DRAWER FRONT

DRAWER BOTTOM

FALSE FRONT

DRAWER FRONT

DRAWER BOTTOM

Jig, lower drawer pulls with upper

Jig, lower drawer pulls with upper adding the

Drawers

& trays

At this point in the construction, the tool cabinet is nearly complete. All that remains is to build the drawers and trays. The upper portion of the tool cabinet contains five drawers.

Shop Tip: False Front Fit

{ A few strips of carpet tape keep the false front positioned for the proper gaps and hold it firmly in place for drilling the screw holes.

The two trays divide the space behind the doors in the bottom of the cabinet (more on that later). Both the drawers and trays ride on full-extension, metal slides. While the construction is similar, there are a few differences to point out.

SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION. The drawing above shows how the drawers are made. Each drawer is nothing more than a shallow box with a false front. I built the box from maple and the false fronts from quartersawn white oak.

The boxes are built with simple tongue and dado joinery, as shown in detail 'b.' A dado is cut at the front and back of each side. A matching tongue is then cut on each end of the front and back.

Once the joinery is cut, you can then cut a groove on the inside face of all the parts to hold a W' ply wood bottom. Then the drawer boxes can be glued up.

The next step is to attach the drawer slides. The full-extension slides come in two parts. One part is screwed to the side of the case. The second part is attached to the bottom edge of the drawer box.

FITTING THE FALSE FRONTS. Once the drawers are in place, I made and attached the false fronts. I wanted to end up with a 1/i6" gap on all four sides (to match the doors) so I cut the false fronts slightly oversize and trimmed them to fit the opening. The photo at left shows a simple way to position the false fronts. When the false front is in the right spot, the tape holds it in place for drilling the screws holes, as shown in the tip at left. The last thing to do before attaching the false fronts, is to add the pulls, as in detail 'c.'

Heavy-Duty Trays

After making the drawers, I turned next to the trays that will be installed in the lower portion of the tool cabinet. This large space is perfect for storing portable power tools. Like the drawers, each tray rides on full-extension slides. This makes it a lot easier to find something at the back of the tray. Storing heavy tools here means the trays need to be strong enough to stand up to the weight.

BUILT FOR STRENGTH. There are two things you can do to beef up the construction. The first is the joinery. For the trays, I used a locking rabbet. In detail 'a,' you can see that the sides, front, and back interlock to create a joint more rugged than a tongue and dado. To make this joint, check out the three-step process that you see below.

The second thing you can do to beef up the trays is to strengthen the materials. Here I did two things. The first is to make the front and back from 3/4"-thick hard maple instead of 1/2" material. The other thing I did was beef up the 1/4" plywood normally used for drawer and tray bottoms.

To reinforce the tray bottom, I made it out of a double layer of 1/4" plywood. The first layer is glued into a 1/4" groove cut in the tray sides, front, and back. The second layer is then cut to fit underneath

Classic Bookcases

the first, as shown in detail 'b.' This makes the tray bottom much more rigid and less likely to flex under a heavy load of tools.

MOUNTING THE TRAYS. Finally, I installed the trays. In order for the trays to clear the doors, they're mounted to a pair of spacers (detail 'c'). The spacers are attached with screws and washers in oversize, counterbored holes to allow the case to expand and contract. ^

How-To: Locking Rabbet Joint

Rip fence s 'A

END VIEW

Rip fence

Aux. fence

END VIEW

-Va Alix-miter

Slot. To make a locking rabbet, start by cutting a slot in each edge of the front and back. The depth of the slot should match the thickness of the sides.

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4

END VIEW

y Va miter fence

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1

Tongue. Next, cut the inside tongue of the slot back. I set the rip fence as a stop and supported the workpiece with an auxiliary fence on the miter gauge.

Dado. The final step is to cut a dado in the side pieces. The dado should match the tongue on the front and back. The remaining tongue should just slip inside the slot.

Fine Tool Chest

It's the perfect place for your best hand tools and works great alone or sitting on the tool cabinet.

When it comes to keeping and organizing my favorite hand tools, I wanted to make a special case for them. So I built this tool chest. You can build it to sit on top of the tool cabinet shown on page 34, or your

workbench. The construction of this chest is very similar to the tool cabinet — just on a smaller scale, as in the exploded view below.

BUILDING THE CASE. To build the tool chest, I started by assembling the case. The 1/2"-thick top, bottom and divider are joined to the chest sides with 3/i6"-deep dadoes.

A pair of stopped dadoes in the top and divider hold drawer dividers for three narrow drawers. They're notched at the front so that they'll sit flush with the sides, as in the exploded view. The horizontal parts all have a small chamfer cut on the front edges to match the chamfer on the top of the sides.

The frame and panel back of the tool chest is glued into a stopped

DRAWER RUNNER

DRAWER RUNNER

Chest Drawer Runners

NOTE:

Stopped dadoes cut in top and divider mirror each other

NOTE:

Notch dividers so they are flush with sides at front

NOTE:

Stopped dadoes cut in top and divider mirror each other

rabbet cut in the case sides. A small rabbet cut on the outside edges of the frame creates a shadow line, as in detail 'a' on page 42.

Before the case can be assembled the drawer runners should be installed, as in detail 'c' on the opposite page. The openings are too small to do this after the case is glued up. The last piece to install on the case is a small filler strip (I) under the bottom (drawing at right).

BUILDING THE DRAWERS

The five drawers in the tool chest are much smaller than those in the larger tool cabinet. Because these drawers are small, I didn't use false fronts. Here, the drawer fronts are made from oak and the sides and backs of the drawers are made from maple, since only the drawer front is visible when it's closed.

The drawers are shallow so that everything inside is in plain sight when I open a drawer. However, the drawers still need to be as strong as possible. So I used locking rabbets to join the parts.

SIMPLE JOINERY. Since the drawers are built with the same joinery, (only the drawer part sizes are different), it makes sense to cut the joinery for the drawers, as in detail 'a' above, all at once.

Before assembling the drawers, you'll need to cut some grooves.

SMALL DRAWER BOTTOM

SMALL/CENTER DRAWER SIDE (T

SMALL DRAWER BACK

CENTER DRAWER BOTTOM

SMALL DRAWER FRONT

CENTER O DRAWER BACK

SMALL DRAWER BOTTOM

SMALL/CENTER DRAWER SIDE (T

SMALL DRAWER BACK

CENTER DRAWER BOTTOM

SMALL DRAWER FRONT

CENTER O DRAWER BACK

FILLER STRIP

NOTE:

Drawer fronts and backs are made of 3A"-thick stock. Sides are made of !/2"-thick stock

NOTE:

Drawers will have a 1Ae"space on top, sides and bottom

FILLER STRIP

NOTE:

Drawer fronts and backs are made of 3A"-thick stock. Sides are made of !/2"-thick stock

NOTE:

Drawers will have a 1Ae"space on top, sides and bottom

f 1 k

Lower drawers

A

A

v2

\

1 i

1 ^

-Filler strip

First I cut a groove on the inside face of all the parts. It's sized to hold a V4" plywood bottom.

A second and larger groove is cut on the outside of drawer sides. This groove will fit over the drawer runners in the case. I positioned the groove so that there is an even gap at the top and bottom, as in detail 'b.' To do this, I cut a few test pieces so that I could check the setup.

Once the grooves are cut, you can go ahead and cut the drawer bottoms and glue up the drawers. There's just one more thing to do. You'll need to notch out the drawer back so that the drawers will fit over the runners. You can see how I did this in the drawing below.

Finally, I added the brass pulls. They're a smaller version of the knobs I used on the tool cabinet. Iwl

Drawer Guides. The drawers in the tool chest slide on wood runners mounted in the case. The runners fit in grooves cut on the drawer sides. A little wax will make them slide even smoother.

How-To: Wood Drawer Guides

Cut groove slightly larger tha

Cut groove slightly larger tha

Notch. To allow the drawer to slide onto the runner, you'll need to cut a notch in the drawer back. I used a hand saw and a chisel to do this.

Drawer Guides. The drawers in the tool chest slide on wood runners mounted in the case. The runners fit in grooves cut on the drawer sides. A little wax will make them slide even smoother.

Groove. After cutting the joinery for the drawer parts, I cut a groove in the drawer sides. The groove is sized slightly larger than the runner.

Notch. To allow the drawer to slide onto the runner, you'll need to cut a notch in the drawer back. I used a hand saw and a chisel to do this.

A hollow-chisel mortiser makes quick work of cutting square, accurate mortises in one step.

working with tools

5 tools that will

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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  • dawid
    How to cut a groove in wood?
    8 years ago

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