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How To Make Fishing Lures by Vlad Evanoff

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BY NORM ABRAM

Face Frame Assembly Jig
Assemble the frames one at a time using a jig made from plywood and scrap boards. After gluing the side and center frame members to a front or back piece, set the assembly face down on the jig to align and square the frame.
French Woodworking

AND RABBETS

Sides made from glued up boards.

TOP RABBET

Dado and rabbet frame assembles to sides.

Rabbets and dadoes are 'A" wide and 7i deep.

BOTTOM RABBET

grooves in all ten pieces.

Both the dado head and the rip fence have to be adjusted to mill the tongues in side and center frame members. The dado should be set to '/2-in. width or greater, and lowered so that just '/•* in. shows above the table. Clamp an auxiliary fence against the rip fence and on your side of the cutter. Adjust its location so that the fence aligns side and center pieces for a Va-in deep tongue or tenon. To make the cut, hold the long edge of the stock against the miter gauge. A pair of cuts completes each tongue.

Before milling the sides and center pieces, test the setup by milling a tongue in scrap stock. This tongue should mate snugly with the grooves you've milled in front and back frame members. If your test tongue is too thin, lower the dado cutter. If it's too thick, raise the cutter and make another test joint. Once the fit is right, you'll be able to mill side and center pieces (15 in all) fairly quickly.

The next step is to assemble the frames. This is repetitive work, but it has to be done accurately or the case won't fit together well. One way to make the process go quickly without sacrificing precision is to use a jig. I built mine from a small sheet of '/2-in plywood and several straight 1 x2s that keep corners square and aligned while you nail the joints (see photo page 20). Using a framing square, lay out the locations of the frame members. Then screw straightedge 1 x2 guide pieces to the plywood so that the frame, when assembled and square, will butt against the guide pieces. After gluing and joining a frame together, hold it against the jig's guide pieces while nailing the joints together with '/2-in. long wire brads. Drive several nails into each joint from both sides of the frame. The brads should keep the joints square until the glue cures.

After the sides have been cut to finished size, rabbet their back edges to receive the back of the chest. The back is just '/■» in. thick, but I make the rabbet '/« in. deep and i/i in. wide to recess the back slightly.

Now the sides can be dadoed to receive the frames. These dados are called "stopped dados" because they stop Vj in. short of each side's front edge. I use a table-saw and dado head to cut these dados. Adjust the dado's width to match the thickness of your frame members, and set the cutter height at V» in.

Stopped dados are a bit trickier to mill than regular dados. I use the rip fence as a guide, adjusting its location to match the layout of the dados (sec Fig.2). At

FIG. 1: CHEST OF DRAWERS

FIG. 2: LAYOUT FOR SIDE DADOES

Stopped dadoes are cut in two steps (photo above and right). First dado the sides on the tablesaw (above}. Use the rip fence as a guide and lower the side over the cutter.
Steps For Polishing Nail
The second step is to square up the end of each dado with a chisel. The square edge should stop V« in. from the front edge.
Rip Fence Guide

Use the tablesaw*s rip fence as a guide when milling grooves in frame members. Adjust dado width to 'A in. and cutter height to l/i in.

Mill tongues with the dado head raised x/i in. above the table and adjusted for a Va-in. wide cut. Two passes complete each tongue.

Glue and nail sides and frames together: Install the three center frames first Glue and nail each joint with lVvin. finishing nails at an angle, through the frame edges and into the sides of the dadoes.

Use the tablesaw*s rip fence as a guide when milling grooves in frame members. Adjust dado width to 'A in. and cutter height to l/i in.

Mill tongues with the dado head raised x/i in. above the table and adjusted for a Va-in. wide cut. Two passes complete each tongue.

Glue and nail sides and frames together: Install the three center frames first Glue and nail each joint with lVvin. finishing nails at an angle, through the frame edges and into the sides of the dadoes.

each of five rip-fence settings, you'll cut matching dados in both sides. The sides that are run through front edge first will have to be lowered over the dado head as shown in the photo. Those that are run through back edge first will have to be lifted free just before the dado cuts to within SU in. of the front edge.

The stopped dados aren't complete until you chisel the "stopped" ends square. Use a sharp pencil and a combination square to lay out the stopped ends. Then switch to a sharp chisel—either 'Aa-in. or '/:-in. width. Using a hammer, drive the sharp edge down just inside your layout lines; then chisel from inside the dado toward the front edge. Repeat this technique until you've reached the full Vs-in. depth of the dado and squared the end. If you're not used to chiseling, this work can take some time. The kev is to remove w large chips while working inside the layout lines, and then carefully pare to the layout lines, removing delicate shavings only as the final step. With each dado, your technique will get better.

There's one small step left before sides and frames can be assembled. The front corners of every frame have to be trimmed just slightly to lap over the stopped dados. As shown in Fig. 3, this small cutout is

7h in. wide and 3/a in. deep. I make these on the table-saw, raising the dado head V* in. above the saw table and adjusting it to make a J/s-in. wide cut.

Now the frames and sides are complete, so the next step is to assemble the chest. With one side resting on the workbench, I glue and nail the three center frames into their respective dados. Be sure that the front edge of each frame is flush with the front edge of the side. Fasten the frames to the sides by driving 1 '/¿-in. finishing nails through the frame edges and into the sides of the dados. Attach the opposite side the same way. After the three center frames and sides are together, you can glue and nail the top and bottom frames in place. These frames can be nailed down with 5d box nails.

As soon as frames and sides are together and before the glue sets, it's important to square up the chest and install the back. I run a bead of glue along the back edges of the frames and in the rabbets that run along the back edges of both sides. Then 1 position the V-i-in. thick back and drive 5d box nails through the back and into the top frame only. Working quickly, turn the chest upright and check the front for square by comparing diagonal measurements. If you need to. rack the chest carefully until diagonals match. Check the

Nail the back to the top frame only then check diagonal measurements The base has dovetailed corners that are made at the front of the chest to make sure it's square. Rack the chest using a router, a Vt- in. dovetail bit and a dovetail jig. until diagonals match then finish nailing the back to the sides and frame members.

Dry fit the dovetailed base comers together Cut the curved legs out on the bandsaw. Set up the router table with a Vi-ln. cove bit and trace the curved leg pattern onto the to mill a cove In the top edge of the base, sides and front of the base.

Nail the back to the top frame only then check diagonal measurements The base has dovetailed corners that are made at the front of the chest to make sure it's square. Rack the chest using a router, a Vt- in. dovetail bit and a dovetail jig. until diagonals match then finish nailing the back to the sides and frame members.

Dry fit the dovetailed base comers together Cut the curved legs out on the bandsaw. Set up the router table with a Vi-ln. cove bit and trace the curved leg pattern onto the to mill a cove In the top edge of the base, sides and front of the base.

throe ccnter frames to make sure they're straight, then finish attaching the back by driving 5d box nails into rabbets and frames.

Now cut and install the short vertical frame member that will separate the pair of small drawers at the top of the chest. Like the other frame members, the piece is 3/-» in. thick and 2 in. wide. Center it between the two upper frames, glue and screw it in place.

Building the Base

The chest base has a front and two sides and is made with dovetailed corners, curved legs and a molded top edge (see Fig. 5). Sides and front start out as eight in. wide boards. If you're milling 7«-in. deep dados like I do, then the finished length of the front is 3/■» in. longer that the width of the chest (side-to-side measurement). Likewise, the finished length of the base sides will be •/■» in. more than the chest depth.

It's best to mill the dovetails in the base sides and front before cutting the curves for the legs. This way, if your dovetails don't come out right, you won't have wasted time cutting the legs. The dovetail jig that I use is similar to many jigs on the market. It consists of a template that's built into a right-angle clamping mechanism, which allows you to mill the tails and the pins in joining pieces in a single operation. The template requires a '/«-in. dovetail bit and guide bushing to be used in the router.

Jigs like this cost between $75 and $150, and they're well-worth the investment if you're planning to do any amount of cabinetry work. In terms of strength and stability, dovetail joints are far superior to any other type of joint. Properly made, a dovetail joint doesn't need to rely on glue, nails or screws to stay together; that's why you'll find dovetails on antique furniture. After a little practice with a dovetail jig, you'll be surprised at how quickly you can produce those intricate, traditional joints.

If you haven't used a jig before, be sure to read the manufacturer's instructions carefully, and mill some practice joints in scrap stock. This way, you'll learn how to clamp the stock in place and fine-tune the jig before cutting into good material. I set up my jig so that the tails are milled in the base front; the pins are milled in the sides. This lets the dovetailed corners show from the front of the chest. When you're using the jig, it's important to move the router and bushing

FRONT EDGE OF CHEST SIDE

French Cleat Shakers

Groove measures lhm wide by l/x" deep.

FRONT EDGE OF CHEST SIDE

Groove measures lhm wide by l/x" deep.

SIDE-FRAME MEMBER

STOPPED DADOES AT FRONT OF CHEST

French Cleat Shakers
Install tbe base with the chest upside down. For extra strength, glue and screw triangular braces at the back comers, joining the base sides to the bottom frame of the chest

carefully into the template's fingers. If the router base isn't flat against the template top. the dovetail bit can cut into the template instead of the wood.

After the dovetails are milled in base front and sides, I temporarily assemble the base and trace the curves for the legs on all three pieces. The pins and tails are delicate, so treat them carefullv until the joints arc glued up. Once the curves are traced on front and sides, I cut them out, one at a time, on the bandsaw. If you don't have a handsaw, it's not difficult to cut these curves with a portable jigsaw.

The next step is to glue the base together. Because there's so much surface area to cover, I use a small brush to spread the glue between pins and tails. Fit the corners together carefully. If the joints are snug, as they should be, you may have to hammer them together. Be sure to use a wood mallet or a shot-filled mallet, instead of a regular hammer, which might damage the joint and mar the wood.

Now glue and screw 1 x 1 cleats inside the assembled base, Vh in. down from the top edges of sides and front. About every 8 in. or so, drive l'A-in. dry wall screws through the cleat and into the base. This cleat forms a ledge for the chest to rest on as shown in

Fig. 5. It also stiffens the base slightly, a feature you'll appreciate during the next operation.

Instead of leaving a square edge along the top of the base, I mill a coved edge, using a V:-in. radius-cove bit chucked in a router-table setup. The coved edge doesn't hold dust like a square edge will, and it also looks better. Adjust the height of the bit and the router-table's fence so that at least '/«in. of flat shows at the top of the cove. Test your setup on some scrap stock first, then readjust the bit and fence if necessary. When you're ready to mill the base, run the sides through first, then the front. This will leave the cleanest edge where it's most visible.

Before joining the chest to the base, give both a thorough sanding. You'll be able to do a better sanding job before these parts are assembled. I smooth out the curves in the base using a drum sander chucked in mv electric drill.

Join base to chest with the chest positioned upside down. The chest should nest snugly in the base, resting against the cleats. Spread glue along the joining surfaces, and attach the cleats to the bottom frame of the chest with iVu-in. drvwall screws. For an ex-

w tra measure of stability, I screw a pair of triangular

Rabbet in side measures wide and %T

FIG. 4: FRAME, BACK AND SIDE DETAILS

Rabbet Edge Detail

Rabbet in side measures wide and %T

FIG. 4: FRAME, BACK AND SIDE DETAILS

Attach the top by driving l'A-in. drywall screws Use a router and a Va-ln. beading bit to mill a bead through the top frame from inside the chest around the edge of the top.

Attach the top by driving l'A-in. drywall screws Use a router and a Va-ln. beading bit to mill a bead through the top frame from inside the chest around the edge of the top.

After dovetailing the drawers, dado each side to hold the bottom and back. Set the dado blade 7«-in. above the table surface.

The drawer fronts have been rabbeted along top and side edges and dovetailed for the sides. The final step is to round over the front edges with a '/«-In. round-over bit In the router table.

After dovetailing the drawers, dado each side to hold the bottom and back. Set the dado blade 7«-in. above the table surface.

braces bridge between the back edges of the base sides and the back rail of the bottom frame as shown in the photo on page 22.

Attaching the Top

The top overhangs the sides and front of the chest by 1 in. I fasten it from underneath, screwing through the top frame with 17-i-in. drywall screws. In order to give the top room to expand and contract without pulling loose, I don't glue it down. Instead. I use only nine screws: one screw in each corner, and a screw at or near the midpoint of each frame member. The corner screws are driven in slots, rather than holes. Working the drill bit back and forth. I make these slots about Va in. long and parallel with the sides of the chest (see Fig. 6). This configuration takes into consideration that the top's movement will be greatest across the grain, rather than with it.

With the top in place, you've now got to mill a bead on its side and front edges. I use a '/j-in. beading bit in my router. Adjust the bit's position to center the bead on the 5/4-in. thick edge. Working from left to right, mill the side edges first, then the front. Feed the bit

The drawer fronts have been rabbeted along top and side edges and dovetailed for the sides. The final step is to round over the front edges with a '/«-In. round-over bit In the router table.

slowly, and take care to keep the router base flat against the top.

Drawer Construction

The drawers for this chest are designed for heavy use. Drawer sides, made with Va-in. thick pine, are dovetailed into V*-in. thick drawer fronts, and the fronts overlap their openings on three sides with a rounded-over lip (see Fig. 7). The first step in constructing the drawers is to cut all the parts to their finished size. On this chest, the large drawer fronts are all 38 in. long. Sides for all drawers are 17'Ai in. long, allowing '/4-in. clearance at the back of the chest when a drawer is closed. To calculate side widths, subtract '/* in. from the height of each drawer opening.

After cutting all the drawer parts to size. I rabbet the drawer fronts on their tip and side edges. This rabbet is '/4 in. wide and '/2 in. deep, and 1 mill it on the tablcsaw, with the dado head set up against a wood auxiliary fence. When all the rabbets are done, it's time to use the dovetail jig again to make the joints where drawer sides meet their fronts. In my jig, the drawer front must be clamped horizontally, under the template with the rabbet facing up. The side is

FIG. 5: BASE CONSTRUCTION

BASE FRONT

Cove top edge.

FIG. 5: BASE CONSTRUCTION

Cove top edge.

BASE FRONT

Unumpentium

Installing the drawer bottom damped vertically. With this setup, you'll mill through the side and in. into the shoulder of the rabbet.

Once milled, the sides fit the drawer fronts onlv one w way, so mark each side to distinguish right from left and inside face from outside face. Now set up the dado head in the tablesaw to mill a groove '/: in. wide and 1/* in. deep. Position the rip fence J/n in. away from the cutter. First, dado all the sides to receive the drawer backs. Then adjust the dado's width of cut to lU in., and mill the grooves in sides and drawer fronts to receive the bottoms. Check the label on each side piece to make sure its dados are milled in the right locations.

Assuming that you've cut the backs and bottoms to size, there's one more operation to complete before you can assemble the drawers. The front edges of the drawers have to be rounded over. The lip created by the rabbeted edges is just in. thick, so I use a '/4-in. round-over bit to give the edges a slight curve. I set up the bit in the router table and mill the drawer edges as shown in the photo on page 22. Mill a sample edge in scrap stock first to make sure the bit and fence are set up correctly. When milling the drawer edges, always mill across the grain first so that you can finish up with the grain.

The drawers are now ready to glue up. Brush the dovetail joints with glue and assemble them first. If they need some coaxing, tap side into fronts with a shot-filled hammer or wood mallet. Install the bottoms next and finally the backs. 1 let the bottom float in the dadoed sides and front, nailing it only into the back with 5d box nails. Backs should be glued and nailed in place.

This completes the chest of drawers, except for installing the drawer knobs. Simple turned wood knobs are traditional on this style of chest, but ceramic knobs also look nice, depending on the type of finish you use on the chest. To make the drawers slide smoothly, rub the bottom edges of the drawer sides with some wax. A

Norm Abram is host of the PBS TVseries. "The New Yankee Workshop. " produced lyy WGBH-TV in Boston and co-host of the series, "This Old House." From The New Yankee Workshop by Norm Abram. (1989 by WGBH Educational Foundation. Norm Abram and Rttssell Morash. Reprinted by permission of Little, Brown and Co., Inc.) The mail-order editio)i is available from Rodale Press, Inc.. 33 E. Minor St.. Emmatis, PA 18098.

FIG. 6: ATTACHING THE TOP

Wood movement in top occurs across the grain.

TOP FRAME OF CHEST

Mill slotted holes for screws at frame edges.

Screw slots allow the top to expand and contract without cracking or stressing the chest's top frame.

FIG. 6: ATTACHING THE TOP

Wood movement in top occurs across the grain.

TOP FRAME OF CHEST

Mill slotted holes for screws at frame edges.

FIG. 7: DRAWER CONSTRUCTION

Tabernaculo Moises Imagenes

FIG. 7: DRAWER CONSTRUCTION

V« plywood bottom floats in groove in sides and front.

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Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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