Making Holes

How To Make Fishing Lures by Vlad Evanoff

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While most basic joiner)7 cuts are made with a saw or a router, holes must be bored with a drill and drill bits. Most woodworkers prefer to use piloted bits for joinery work. (See Figure 3-10.) The pilot is a small point on the cutting end of the bit which helps to position the hole accurately.

Before drilling a hole, check the diameter, angle, and position of the bit. The size of the bit will determine the diameter of the hole. The angle of the bit (in relation to the work) determines the hole angle. (See Figures 3-11 and 3-12.) To position the bit, simply move the work or the drill until the pilot of the bit is directly over the mark for the hole.

Drill holes at a slow speed, no more than 1,000 revolutions per minute (RPM). If the hole is over 1 inch in diameter, reduce this maximum speed to about 600 RPM. If the bit revolves too fast, the friction may cause the bit to heat up and burn the wood.

Friction Bit Joining

3-10 Three types of piloted drill bits are commonly used for joinery. A spade bit (1) is a good multipurpose wood bit. It's inexpensive and easy to sharpen, and it bores holes very quickly. However, it may wander, particularly when drilling deep holes. The brad point bit (2) drills more slowly and is more difficult to maintain, but its more accurate. A Forstner bit (3) bores holes with flat bottoms and smooth sides. However, of the three bits shown, it cuts slowest and is most difficult to sharpen. And because it does not clear wood chips as well as other bits, it's not a good choice for deep holes. Note: Not all Forstner bits have pilots.

For ftesr Kemlts

Drill bits often bore clean entrance holes but tear the wood grain when they exit a board. You can prevent much, but not all, of this tear-out by backing up the board with a scrap. A better method is to drill the hole until just the pilot of the bit exits the board, then turn the board over. Using the pin-sized pilot hole to position the bit, finish the hole by drilling through from the other side.

3-12 When drilling angled holes with a hand-held drill, make a guide by mounting a 6-inch length of coat hanger wire in a small scrap of wood. Bend the wire to the angle you want to drill, and place it close to the hole location. Drill the hole, sighting along both the wire and the bit to keep them parallel. You can buy jigs that hold a portable drill at a precise angle, but you'll be surprised at how accurate this simple method can be.

3-11 When drilling holes with a drill press, check the angle with a small square or a protractor. To adjust the angle, tilt the table. Note: Drill bits, like saw blades, may suffer from run-out. However, unlike blades, wobbly bits should be discarded. Rotate the bit at least one full revolution when you check the drill angle. If there's any visible runout, use another bit.

3-12 When drilling angled holes with a hand-held drill, make a guide by mounting a 6-inch length of coat hanger wire in a small scrap of wood. Bend the wire to the angle you want to drill, and place it close to the hole location. Drill the hole, sighting along both the wire and the bit to keep them parallel. You can buy jigs that hold a portable drill at a precise angle, but you'll be surprised at how accurate this simple method can be.

simple variations

It takes at least two cuts to make a woodworking joint — one or more cuts in each of the adjoining boards. For example, to fit the end of a shelf to a dado in the side of a cupboard, you must cut a dado in the side board and trim the shelf board to fit with a butt cut.

There are dozens of ways to join two boards with a few simple cuts. Here are several examples and suggestions on how you might use them (see "Examples of Simple Joinery" on the facing page):

■ Rabbet and Dado — If the dado in a cupboard side is smaller than the thickness of a shelf, you can cut a rabbet in the shelf end to fit the dado. Note: Sometimes the rabbeted end of a board is referred to as a bare-faced tongue, especially when it fits in a dado or groove.

■ Blind Dado — If you don't want the dado joint to be seen from the front of a cupboard, make a blind dado, stopping the cut about V2 inch from the front edge of the cupboard side. Make a corner notch in the shelf to fit the blind end of the dado.

■ Lap — You can join two members of a frame by cutting a rabbet in the end of each board and lapping the rabbets. This is called a corner lap. If you cut a rabbet in one board and a dado in the other, then lap the joints, it's an end lap. And if you lap two dado joints, it's a cross lap.

■ Tongue and Groove — Tabletops, cupboard backs, and flooring are often fitted together with tongue-and-groove joints. To make this joint, cut a groove down the middle of the edge of one board. Cut two rabbets — one in each arris — in an edge of the second board. This will form the tongue.

■ Scarf— One of the easiest ways to make long boards out of short ones is with a scarf joint. Cut miters in the adjoining ends of the boards, then lap the miters so the faces and edges of both boards are flush and parallel.

■ Edge Joint — If you need to make wide boards out of narrow ones, simply rip and joint the adjoining edges of the boards so they are perfectly straight and square. Butt them together so the faces are flush.

Examples of Simple Joinery

Joining Wood

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