Safety In The Workshop

Marking Out Finger Joints Wood

Follow basic safety procedures to avoid accidents in the workshop. Blunt tools that you have to force through the wood are potentially more dangerous than sharp ones that cut effortlessly. Always keep your tools and machinery in good condition, checking that spanners and adjusting keys are removed from machines before switching on. Periodically check that all nuts, bolts and other For safety, clamp the work or steady it against a bench hook, so that you can keep both hands behind a cutting...

Woodworking Glue

Joints should be made to fit well, rather than relying on the gap-filling properties of adhesive. Make sure the gluing surfaces are clean and free from grease. Some woods, such as teak and rosewood, are best glued as soon after cutting as possible, before their natural resins form a surface film that prevents glue being absorbed properly. atmosphere, apply glue in a thin, even layer to both halves of a joint. Take care to coat the surfaces of a mortise, since most of the glue applied to the...

Basic Essentials

Marking Timber Face Edge Signs

As with most craft skills, there is hardly ever only one way to cut a joint. With experience, every woodworker adapts the basic methods, incorporating small personal variations that make the job easier or produce a better result for them. Nevertheless, there is a hard core of accepted procedures and techniques that are consistent with snug-fitting joints. The old adage, measure twice and cut once', is good advice. Hurried, inaccurate work when marking out joints leads to all manner of problems....

Hand Cut

Joint Cuts

Adjust the plane's depth stop to cut a tongue of the required size, then begin planing at the far end of the workpiece, gradually working backwards as the tongue is formed. Clamp the work in a bench vice, face-side towards you. Adjust the fence until the cutter is centred on the edge of the work. Provided the matching groove is also cut from the face side, it is not essential that the tongue is precisely on-centre. Select a ploughing cutter that matches the width of the tongue, and fit it into...

Setting Up For Clamping

Clamping Machine Cutting

Apply adhesive evenly to both parts of each joint. Assemble the frame, ensuring that the cramps are perfectly aligned with their respective rails, and gradually tighten the jaws to close the joints. Wipe off excess adhesive squeezed from the joints, using a damp cloth. You can check the accuracy of a small frame with a try square at each corner, but for larger ones, measure the diagonals to ensure they are identical. Make a pair of pinch rods from thin strips of wood, planing a bevel on one end...

Using A Table

Apothecary Chest Plans

Make a simple jig by tilting the saw blade to 45 degrees and ripping a 90-degree I -shape notch down the centre of a short length of 50 x 100mm 2 x 4in softwood. Leave about 6mm I1 tin of wood just below the notch. Set the blade upright and cut two slots across the base, about one third of the way along the jig. Space the slots to match the required interval between 'fingers', and if you want splines wider than the standard saw kerf fit wobble washers. Glue a locating strip in one slot and...

Machinecut Tenons

Although it is largely a matter of personal choice, perhaps the best way to produce tenons in quantity is to use a table saw. You can work relatively quickly without damaging its blade or powerful motor, and the sharp carbide-tipped saw teeth cut so cleanlv that there should be no need for final fitting by hand. It may be possible to buy a purpose-made tenon-cutting jig for a particular model of saw such jigs are designed to slide along the slot machined across the saw table for the mitre...

Cutting Tenons On A Radialarm

Backing Panel

With the workpiece butted against an end stop clamped to the fence, make the first cut along the shoulder line. Slide the work sideways, removing the waste little by little with successive crosscuts. Turn the work over and repeat the procedure to cut the other side of the tenon. screw stop to backing panel to support workpiece machine slots for bolts, and grooves for hardwood slioes in underside of base screw stop to backing panel to support workpiece Chapter 2 0 Traditional drawer making...

Making A Tsquare

Notch Cut Wood Table

Prepare 150 x 12mm 6 x Vm straight-grained hardwood, and cut from it a 600mm 2ft T-square blade. Cut a 400mm 1ft 4in stock from 75 x 12mm 3 x V2 n wood. Screw and glue the blade to the stock at 90 degrees. Mark both ends of the stock with a line that is the same distance from the edge of the T-square blade as the centre of the router cutter is from the edge of the tool's base. Use these lines to position the cutter on the centre line of the housing. Set the work upright in a vice and clamp an...

Build Your Own Router Carver

Make Your Own Dovetail Jig

The versatility of the router hits been enhanced by the development of ingenious jigs for cutting traditional joints. Although the initial adjustment is time-consuming, once these jigs are set, even complicated dovetail joints can be cut in a fraction of the time it takes to make them bv hand. The description here serves its a guide to cutting through dovetails on a jig that features individually adjustable fingers that guide the router cutter. The setting of the finger assembly governs the...

Measuring And Marking Tools

Antique Marking Gauge

Accurate marking-out is the key to good joint-making. A few basic tools enable you to measure out workpieces and to scribe dimension lines on solid wood and man-made boards. Accurate marking-out is the key to good joint-making. A few basic tools enable you to measure out workpieces and to scribe dimension lines on solid wood and man-made boards. A metalworker's steel rule is useful for taking precise measurements, and doubles as a short straightedge for scribing dimension lines on a workpiece...

Using Dovetail Template

Dovetail Template

A standard through dovetail is considered to be attractive, and the decorative qualities of the joint can be exploited still further by varying the size and spacing of the tails and pins. The example shown here has fine triangular pins and a central half-depth dovetail that interrupts the regular rhythm of the joint. Begin by marking out the tails, lightly scribing the shoulder line on all sides of the workpiece. Similarly mark the shoulder line for the half-depth dovetail. Begin by marking out...

Cutting Finger Joints On A Radialarm

Machine Joints

To cut finger joints on a radial-arm saw, rotate the mounting to set the blade in a horizontal plane. To support the work, replace the saw's main guide fence with a small raised table and fence made from MDF. Clamp four workpieces together on the raised table, with their ends projecting by the required depth of cut. To offset the fingers for one half of each joint, raise two of the components on a packing strip that equals the width of the saw cut. Begin by adjusting the blade to cut open...

Tongueandgroove Joint

Cutting Wood Lengthwise Chainsaw Bar

A power router is not only the perfect tool for grooving a joint to take a separate tongue, it can also be adapted to machine an integral tongue on one half of a joint. For jointing larger sections of timber, consider setting up a table saw to cut tongues and grooves. A wooden strip clamped along each side of the workpiece provides a wide, flush surface to support the base of the router. A wooden strip clamped along each side of the workpiece provides a wide, flush surface to support the base...

Machine Cut

Finger Joints That Lock

Though it cannot compare with the production rate of a commercial spindle moulder, it is not too difficult to cut batches of finger joints on a table saw, using a simple jig. Use a blade that will cut a generous kerf between fingers or, for wider spacing, use wobble washers, where the cutting edge moves from side to side with each revolution. The exact size and spacing of fingers will be determined by the width of your workpiece. Clamp a length of wood or MDF to the saw's sliding mitre fence....

Dovetail Angles

Dove Tail Joint

The sides of a dovetail must slope at the optimum angle. An exaggerated slope results in weak short grain at the tips of the dovetail, while insufficient taper invariably leads to a slack joint. Ideally, mark a 1 8 angle for hardwoods, but increase the angle to 1 6 for softwoods. The proportion of each tail is a matter of personal interpretation, but a row of small, regularly spaced tails looks better than a few large ones, and also makes for a stronger joint. Set the work horizontally in the...

Glazing Bar Halving Joint Router Bits

Fences 16.18. 20-4.27-8. 31-4. 37.43. 45,51.54. 56. 58,60, 79-80,94, 96-8.104, 120-2 bevel 24 end 32 guide 104 mitre 18. 21-2,43, 54. 56. 58. 80,96, 98,122 power-router 27-8,45. 51. 94,104 radial-arm-saw 43,60,80 sliding 31 sliding-mitre 96 table-saw 20.79,97 files 79,101 fine-adjustment scales 85 finger joints 15, 95-98 mock 98 fixed head 31,33 flat-frame mitre joint 21 fluting 30 frame joints 30 1,34 frames 17-22,30,35-41.53. 55, 60-4. 70. 73-6.105-9 box 21-2,41 cross 55 flat 18, 21 moulded...

Lap Joint

Miter Saw Fence Height Extension

Because it is made with simple saw cuts, the lap joint is particularly easy to produce with a table saw or radial-arm saw. Cutting to length on a radial-arm saw Holding each component against the fence, pull the saw towards you to cut one end square. Turn the work over and sever the other end. When sawing several identical pieces, clamp an end stop to the fence to save you having to measure each workpiece. Cut square both ends of each workpiece. When cutting identical pieces to length, attach...

How To Cut A Secret Mitred Dovetail

Hand And Machine Cut Tails

Holding the pin member on end, align its inside face with the shoulder line marked across the tail member. Scribe around the pins to mark the shape of the tails. Square parallel lines across the end grain to mark the tips of the tails. Cut the tails and mitres as described for the pins, and mitre the lap in the same way. A mitred dovetail, which is typically used when both components are the same thickness, requires careful marking and cutting. Since it is...

Lock Mitre Joint

Locking Rabbet

The lock mitre is similar to the half-blind lap joint, but is made with a small mitre that conceals the end grain, or the core of suitable man-made boards, at the corner. The joint can be cut entirely on a table saw - using a dado head enables you to cut the joint quickly, but you can remove the waste in stages using a conventional saw blade. Cut the groove across the side member with a single pass across the circular saw blade. Cut the groove across the side member with a single pass across...

Mitred Through Dovetail

Dovetail With Mitred Corner

Should you wish to mould the edge of a dovetailed workpiece, perhaps to make a sliding tray or an open box, incorporate a mitre at each corner. After scribing the shoulder line on the two sides and across the bottom of the tail member, mark the mitre on the top edge. After scribing the shoulder line on the two sides and across the bottom of the tail member, mark the mitre on the top edge. Set a marking gauge to the depth required for the moulded edge, and scribe a line on the end grain and...

How To Make Dovetail

Mdf Cradle Jig Degrees

Construct a cradle from MDF to hold the assembled workpiece at 45 degrees to the router table. Machine a small rectangular opening in the base before you assemble the basic jig with glue. Set the router to cut a dovetail slot in the centre of the cradle. Set up the fence and jig so that the dovetail cutter fits accurately in the slot in the cradle. Place the workpiece in the cradle, aligning one edge with the marked line, and feed the jig into the cutter to make the first slot. Move the work...

Corner Plates

Knockdown Fitting Corner Plate

Calculate the flange-slot positions from the size of the legs and plates, and draw squared guide lines across the rails. Cut the slots to the required depth, and screw the plates to the rails. Pressed-metal corner plates form demountable joints between table legs and rails. The flanges are located in shallow slots cut across the inside of each rail, and the plate is held in place by wood-screws. A threaded hanger bolt, screwed into a chamfer planed on the inner corner...

How To Make The Dowel End Of Rail Fencing

Dowel Together Stiles Rails

Frames made with dowelled butt joints are surprisingly strong. Nowadays, most factory-made furniture incorporates dowel joints, even for chair rails which must be capable of resisting prolonged and considerable strain. In most cases, two dowels per joint are sufficient. Place them a minimum of 6mm 4in from both edges of the rail. Saw each component to length and trim the ends of the rail square as described for making a square-ended butt joint see page 18 . Leave the stile or leg of a corner...

Making A Scratch Stock

Rule Joint Hinge

To shape the edges of both workpieces, make a scratch stock from hardwood or plywood, and prepare a pair of matched cutters from steel sheet. File the exact radius curve on the convex cutter, but make the concave cutter very slightly smaller. Clamp the table top face-side up on the bench, and cut the joint rabbet down to the marked lines, using a rabbet plane. Clamp the table top face-side up on the bench, and cut the joint rabbet down to the marked lines, using a rabbet plane. Shape the...

Selecting Wood And Boards

Joints Wood

Poorly seasoned, substandard wood adversely affects the strength of a joint. Reject any timber with large knots, splits or other blemishes, and examine your chosen timber carefully to ensure that there will be no weak short grain at the critical parts of a joint. Don't buy warped or twisted lengths of wood, and check with your supplier that the timber has been seasoned carefully. If it shrinks at a later stage, joints can work loose, and high moisture content may prevent glue setting properly....

Biscuitjointer Safety

Wooden Joint Rotation

4s well as observing the standard working methods for power tools see page 16 , note the following points with specific reference to biscuit jointers. Remove and throw away cracked or bent blades, and replace with sharp ones. The motor must be running before you plunge the blade into wood. Do not attempt to slow down or stop a spinning blade by applying pressure from the side. The blade guard must always be in place when the jointer is running. When cutting a groove, always feed the jointer...

Selecting The Right Joint

Dovetail Halving

Before you can exercise your woodworking skills, you have to decide which joint will best suit your needs given that there are so many to choose from, making the right choice is not as easy at it might seem. These charts suggest not only which joints to consider for a wide variety of applications, but also what tools you can use and what materials will be suitable. From the diagrams ranged along the top of the charts, select the application that most closely represents the item you want to...

Tee Bridle Joint

Centre Bridle Joint

Traditionally, most paintings are made on canvas stretched over a wooden frame. Readv-made frames are expensive, and it is worth making your own, using a variation of the mitred bridle joint. The frame is assembled without glue so that, if the canvas becomes slack due to changes in humidity, tension can be applied by driving wedges inside each corner of the frame to expand the joints. In the following instructions, the face side of each piece of wood, or 'stretcher', refers to the surface that...

Knuckle Joint

Wooden Knuckle Hinge Joint

The pivoting wooden brackets that support the lightweight drop leaves of small tables are sometimes fixed to the side rails with metal butt hinges. However, they are traditionally made with stout, integral knuckle joints that are not only stronger but also more sympathetic to a finely made piece. The fixed part of each bracket is screwed to the side rail of the table. Set a cutting gauge to the thickness of the wood, and scribe a line all round both halves of the bracket, parallel with the...

Hammers And Mallets

Most workshops boast a range of hammers, even though they are rarely used in joint-making, except when reinforcing with pins or nails. One medium-weight cross-peen hammer will suffice for most needs. It is heavy enough to tap joints together and dismantle them again, yet sufficiently well-balanced so that you can perform precise operations, such as starting a nail or panel pin with the wedge-shape peen on the back of the hammer head. Although you can drive plastic-handle chisels and gouges with...

Dowelled Mitre Joint

Stopped Mitre Joint

Use stopped dowels if you want to strengthen the joint without any obvious form of reinforcement. Use a shoulder plane to trim the mitre, clamping a backing board bevelled to 45 degrees behind the work, to help guide the sole of the plane. Use a shoulder plane to trim the mitre, clamping a backing board bevelled to 45 degrees behind the work, to help guide the sole of the plane.

Barrel Nut Bolt

Barrel Nut And Bolt Fitting

This is a strong and positive fitting for all types of frame construction where the end of a rail meets the side of a leg or other vertical member. The bolt passes through a counterbored hole in the leg and into the end of the rail, where it is then screwed into a threaded barrel nut located in a stopped hole. A screw slot in the end of the nut allows vou to align the threaded hole with the bolt. A wooden locating dowel fitted in the end of the rail makes assembly easier and prevents the rail...

Woodworking Cramps

Interlocking woodworking joints are designed to ensure optimum contact area between components, so that they bond well with adhesive. A well-cut joint requires the minimum of clamping pressure, the main purpose of using cramps being to help assemble the workpiece and hold the parts together while the glue sets. It is always useful to have plenty of cramps available, but pairs of each type in a couple of sizes should suffice. Complete sets of cramps are relatively expensive, but you can acquire...

Of A Mortise And Tenon

Twin Mortise And Tenon Joint

Cut the tenon for a standard joint to approximately one-third the thickness of the railthe exact size being determined by the chisel used to cut the mortise. Tenon thickness can be increased when the leg or mortise member is thicker than the rail. A tenon normally runs the full width of the rail but, should the rail be unusually wide, it is best to incorporate a pair of tenons, one above the other, to avoid weakening the leg with an excessively long mortise. This type of joint is known as a...

Machine

A biscuit joint is a reinforced butt or mitre joint. In principle, it is similar to a dowel joint, but instead of a round peg or dowel fitting in a hole, in biscuit jointing a flat oval plate the biscuit made of compressed beech is fitted into a matching slot. With the addition of water-based PVA glue, the biscuit expands to fill the slot, forming a very strong joint. The biscuit jointer itself is a small-scale plunge saw with a circular-saw blade, specifically developed for trimming panels or...

Using A Router Plane

Glazing Bar Halving Joint

Having chiselled out most of the waste, pare the bottom of a housing level, using a special router plane fitted with a narrow, adjustable L-shape blade. When a panel is too wide to use a chisel conveniently remove all the waste in stages by making several passes with the router plane, lowering the cutter each time the housing is level. When cutting this joint by hand, incorporate a single dovetail along one side of the housing. Double-sided dovetails are best cut with a router see page 51 ....

Cam Fittings

Locking Cam And Dowel Joint

The cam fitting is a discreet knock-down joint for carcases constructed from man-made boards. It is used to make corner joints, or for holding shelves and vertical dividers. A round-head metal dowel screwed into the vertical component or side panel locates with a cam-action boss set in the underside of the horizontal component or shelf. Turning the boss with a screwdriver pulls the joint tight. The standard straight dowel is made with a coarse thread that screws directly into the board. Another...

Machinecut Mortises

Square Slot Machining

If you plan to cut a number of joints, it is well worth setting up a machine tool to make your production easier and faster. A drill press or a power drill in a bench stand can be used to remove most of the waste before finishing the job by hand, or - better still - you can fit a special mortising attachment to the drill press. Clamp a wooden fence to the base of the drill press, and adjust it to centre the point of the drill bit on the mortise. Set the tool's depth stop to drill to the base of...

Collins

This is the complete guide to every kind of woodworking joint - from traditional hand-cut dovetails to modern knock-down fittings. Invaluable for the novice and the experienced woodworker alike. over 600 full-colour photographs and step-by-step illustrations a unique chart for selecting the right joint, tools and materials for the job appropriate handtool, power-tool and machine-tool methods for every joint a comprehensive guide to adhesives, and how to use them a glossary of essential...

Corner Bridle Joint

Bridle Joint

A corner bridle joint is adequate for relatively lightweight frames, provided they are not subjected to sideways pressure, which tends to force bridle joints out of square. The strength of the bridle is improved considerably if you insert two dowels through the side of the joint after the glue has set. Taking each tenon member in turn, mark square shoulders all round, allowing for a tenon that is slightly overlong so that it can be planed flush after the joint is complete. Use a marking knife,...

Chisels And Gouges

Jointing Chisel

Woodworking of any kind is impossible without at least a small range of well-made chisels and gouges. In joint-making. they are especially useful for removing waste wood and for paring components to make a snug fit. The standard woodworking chisel has a strong rectangular-section blade which you can confidently drive with a mallet through pine or hardwoods, without fear of it breaking. Firmer chisels range from 3 to 38mm 1 sto 13 in wide. The slim-bladed bevel-edge chisel is designed for more...

Proportions Of A Haunched Tenon

Proportions Haunched Tenon

Make the tenon two-thirds the width of the rail the haunch itself should be as long as it is thick. Make a sloping haunch to the same proportions, but pare it away to meet the shoulder line. Having marked the shoulders and scribed the tenon thickness on the rail see page 64 , use a marking gauge to scribe the top edge of the tenon on both sides and across the end grain. Having marked the shoulders and scribed the tenon thickness on the rail see page 64 , use a marking gauge to scribe the top...

Using A Radialarm

Halving Joint

The radial-arm saw is an excellent machine for cutting halving joints, since you can clearly see the shoulder lines you are sawing. Using a dado head removes more waste wood at one pass than a standard setup. Adjust the blade to cut halfway through the work, and pull the saw towards you to cut the shoulder. Slide the work to one side, gradually removing more waste with each pass. Clamp an end stop to the fence to cut a shoulder in the same place on identical workpieces. When cutting recesses...

How To Cut 45 Degree Angle Wood

How Work Angle Table Saw

It pays to use a special jig called a mitre saw to cut larger pieces of wood or moulded sections of framing. The workpiece can be held on edge or flat on the bed of the tool. The saw guide, which can be set to any angle, guarantees accurate joints. Hold the work on a mitre shooting board and trim each cut end with a sharp bench plane. MACHINE CUT Box-frame mitre joint i tongue Adjust the mitre fence on the table saw to the required angle, usually 45 degrees. Holding the workpiece firmly against...

How To Cut A Halving Joint

Square Stopped Housing

The tapered stopped housing is a variant of the stopped housing, having a dovetail slope along one side, hut also tapering towards the stopped end. It is particularly useful for deep cabinets, because it remains slack while you assemble the joint, finally pulling itself tight at the last moment. However, it requires very precise making to achieve the desired result. Pencil a straight-sided, stopped housing on the side panel, then rule a line representing the tapered shoulder of the housing....

Mitred Bridle Joint

Machine For Edge Joint

The mitred bridle is cut in a similar vvav to the conventional corner joint, but is a more attractive alternative for framing, because end grain appears on one edge only. Cut the components exactly to length. Mark the width of the parts on each end and square the shoulders all round, using a try square and pencil. Mark the sloping face of the mitre on both sides of each component with a knife and mitre square. 2 Gauging the tenon and open mortise Set the pins of a mortise gauge to one-third the...

Chipboard Fasteners

Cam Chipboard

You can improve the strength of screwed joints in chipboard by fitting nylon inserts into the square-cut edges. These chipboard fasteners plug into pre-drilled holes and expand to grip the material as the screw is tightened. You can improve the strength of screwed joints in chipboard by fitting nylon inserts into the square-cut edges. These chipboard fasteners plug into pre-drilled holes and expand to grip the material as the screw is tightened. Cut the boards square and, using a marking gauge,...