Proportions Of A Haunched Tenon

Make the tenon two-thirds the width of the rail; the haunch itself should be as long as it is thick. Make a sloping haunch to the same proportions, but pare it away to meet the shoulder line.

Wood Scribe Marking Gauge
Square haunch
Scribed Joint
Sloping haunch
Free Marking Gauge Plan

1 Marking out the tenon

Having marked the shoulders and scribed the tenon thickness on the rail (see page 64), use a marking gauge to scribe the top edge of the tenon on both sides and across the end grain.

1 Marking out the tenon

Having marked the shoulders and scribed the tenon thickness on the rail (see page 64), use a marking gauge to scribe the top edge of the tenon on both sides and across the end grain.

leg or stile

Rail And Stile Proportions
haunch line

2 Marking the haunch

Mark the length of the haunch across the top and down the sides of the rail, and then hatch the waste with a pencil.

Rail And Stile Proportions

3 Transferring the measurements

Using the rail as a template, mark the position of the mortise on the stile. At this stage, let the end of the stile project by about 18mm (3/iin) to prevent splitting. This extension, known as the horn, is cut off and planed flush when the joint is complete.

Mortise Cutting Machines

4 Scribing the mortise

Scribe the mortise up to the end of the stile, and then continue the lines a short way onto the end grain; this marks the end of the haunch groove.

5 Marking the depth of the groove

Scribe a short line on the end of the stile to mark the depth of the haunch groove.

Machine Vice Tenon

6 Cutting the mortise

Having cut the mortise (see page 65), extend the sides by sawing along the gauged lines, down to the bottom of the haunch groove.

7 Paring the groove

Use a chisel to pare away the waste, leaving the bottom of the groove square.

Grooved And Shouldered Joints
clamp the work upright in a vice and saw beside the line marking the top edge of the tenon, down to the haunch. Reposition the work and saw down the end of the haunch, forming a notch at the top corner of the joint. Finally, saw along the shoulders to remove waste
Tenon Saw Cutting
Mark out the tenon, including the haunch (see opposite), then score the sloping sides of the haunch with a marking knife. Saw down this line, after first cutting along the top edge of the tenon (see above).
Mark The Haunch

2 Trimming the mortise

When marking out the mortise, continue the gauged lines up to the top of the stile, but not over the end. Having chopped out the mortise, saw the sides of the haunch groove at an angle, taking care not to overrun, then pare the slope with a chisel.

weoges

Tenon Cutter Machine

2 Cutting the wedges

Make two wedges about three-quarters the length of the tenon, and about 3mm (Yqin) thick at the wide point.

Mortise And Tenon WedgeMortise And Tenon Machine

WEDGING THROUGH TENONS

Cut a shallow slope at each end of the mortise to allow room for the tenon to expand. Make two saw cuts down the length of the tenon. stopping just short of the shoulders. Glue and assemble the joint, then drive in the glued wedges, tapping them alternately to spread the tenon evenly. When the adhesive sets, plane end grain and wedges flush.

2 Cutting the wedges

Make two wedges about three-quarters the length of the tenon, and about 3mm (Yqin) thick at the wide point.

3 Shaping the mortise

Undercut each end of the mortise with a chisel, paring away about 3mm (1/6in) of the wood at the bottom of the joint.

4 Inserting the wedges

Dip the wedges in glue and brush some more into the joint. Push the wedges into the saw cuts before assembling the joint and clamping it.

1 Fox wedging

Because a fox-wedged tenon expands inside the mortise, it cannot be withdrawn once the joint is assembled, so take care to cut the parts accurately.

A well-made mortise and tenon is normally strong enough to hold the joint together using glue alone. However, if a joint has to resist more than average leverage, expand the tenon dovetail-fashion with hardwood wedges. You can wedge both through and stopped tenons - when hidden, they are known its fox wedges.

weoges three times thickness of stile

Loose Wedge Through Mortise And Tenon

2 Marking the wedge mortise

Take the joint apart and mark the mortise for the loose wedge on the top edge of the tenon. Set the inner end of the mortise about 3mm (Vm) inside the line marking the thickness of the stile.

How Cut Mortise Joint

1 Assembling the joint

Cut the mortise and tenon as described on pages 64-5, but make them a sliding fit. Assemble the joint and mark the thickness of the stile on the projecting tenon.

Rail And Stile Proportions

PROPORTIONS OF A LOOSE-WEDGED JOINT

The total length of the tenon should be at least three times the thickness of the stile, and it should be not less than one-third the width of the rail. The mortise for the loose wedge should be approximately 18mm I¥m) long and about one-third of the tenon in width. The outer end of this mortise slopes to accommodate the wedge; the inner end is cut square.

LOOSE-WEDGED MORTISE AND TENON

HAND CUT

A loose-wedged joint must be constructed with generous shoulders and a stout tenon that will resist splitting. The wedge is normally set vertically to prevent it working loose. Since the joint is designed to be broken down, no glue is used, and it relies on the clamping force of the wedge to provide rigidity.

three times thickness of stile

1 Assembling the joint

Cut the mortise and tenon as described on pages 64-5, but make them a sliding fit. Assemble the joint and mark the thickness of the stile on the projecting tenon.

2 Marking the wedge mortise

Take the joint apart and mark the mortise for the loose wedge on the top edge of the tenon. Set the inner end of the mortise about 3mm (Vm) inside the line marking the thickness of the stile.

4 Completing the joint

Cut the wedge mortise, paring the sloping end with a chisel. Assemble the joint and tap in the wedge to draw the shoulders up tight.

3 Marking the sloping end

Set a sliding bevel to an angle of 1:6. From the line marking the outer end of the wedge mortise, draw another line on the side of the tenon, using the bevel Square this line across the bottom of the tenon, then scribe the sides of the wedge mortise up to the line.

4 Cutting the tenon

Cut the tenon as described on page 71. but make a second saw cut across the end of the rail to form the bottom of the tenon.

Rabbeted Mortise Haunched Dimensions

3 Transferring the measurements

Using the rail as a template, mark the position of the mortise on the stile. Cut a simple stopped mortise on these marks; cutting the panel groove at a later stage also makes room for the haunch.

5 Cutting the panel grooves

Plane or router the grooves on the inside of the rails and stiles, then make and fit the panel before gluing and assembling the frame.

Matchmaker Router Joint Machine

stile haunch line

Tenoning Machine

of tenon

4 Cutting the tenon

Cut the tenon as described on page 71. but make a second saw cut across the end of the rail to form the bottom of the tenon.

stile

The frame of a traditional panelled door is grooved on the inside to accommodate the panel. When haunched mortise-and-tenon joints are used at the corners, align the grooves with the mortises and make them both the same width. In addition, match the depth of the groove to the length of the haunch, so that the one neatly fills the other at the 7 «

end of the stile. It is usually easier to cut the

groove after the joints.

haunch line of tenon

2 Marking out the tenon

Mark out the tenon (see page 70) then, with a marking gauge set to the depth of the groove, scribe the bottom edge of the tenon on both sides and across the end of the rail.

1 Scribing the panel grooves

Use a mortise gauge to scribe grooves on the inside of the rails and stiles.

3 Transferring the measurements

Using the rail as a template, mark the position of the mortise on the stile. Cut a simple stopped mortise on these marks; cutting the panel groove at a later stage also makes room for the haunch.

5 Cutting the panel grooves

Plane or router the grooves on the inside of the rails and stiles, then make and fit the panel before gluing and assembling the frame.

short shoulder stile

Setting And Using Marking Gauge

shoulder

1 Scribing the rabbets

Set a marking gauge to one-third the thickness of the workpieces, and scribe the depth of the rabbet on the inner edge of the rails and stiles. Reset the gauge to about 6mm (1/iin) and scribe the rabbet width.

3 Marking the short shoulder and tenon

Mark the short shoulder across the inner face; it should be as far from the long-shoulder line as the width of the rabbet - about 6mm (Va\u). Square the line across both edges. Mark out the haunch, then scribe the thickness of the tenon with a mortise gauge. Use a marking gauge to scribe the bottom of the tenon.

When making a glazed door for a cabinet, cut a rabbet on the inside of the rails and stiles to take the glass. Each corner of the frame can be joined with a haunched mortise and tenon, but it is necessary to stagger the shoulders in order to close off the rabbet at the end of the stile. It is probably easier to cut the rabbets after the joints. When the doorframe is complete, lay the glass in the rabbets and hold it in place with putty or a wooden bead.

1 Scribing the rabbets

Set a marking gauge to one-third the thickness of the workpieces, and scribe the depth of the rabbet on the inner edge of the rails and stiles. Reset the gauge to about 6mm (1/iin) and scribe the rabbet width.

short shoulder shoulder stile

Scribe The Long Shoulder Line

2 Marking the long shoulder

Referring to the proportions given for a standard haunched mortise and tenon (see page 70), score the long shoulder across the outer face of the rail. Using a pencil, square this line across both edges.

2 Marking the long shoulder

Referring to the proportions given for a standard haunched mortise and tenon (see page 70), score the long shoulder across the outer face of the rail. Using a pencil, square this line across both edges.

Square Shoulder Tool Joint

short-

shoulder line rabbet line haunch line

Shoulder Joint Wood

4 Marking out the mortise

Transfer the dimension from the rail to mark the position of the mortise on the stile. Gauge the thickness of the mortise. Use the same tool to mark the length of the haunch, measured from the long-shoulder line, onto the end of the stile. Hatch waste wood with a pencil.

long-shoulder line haunch line short-

shoulder line rabbet line

5 Cutting the joints and rabbets

After cutting the joints, plane or router the rabbets on the inside of the rails and stiles. Finally, pare out the haunch waste from each joint (see page 71).

Rail And Stile Proportions

S TILE

Haunched Mortise And Tenon

2 Marking out and cutting the joint

Mark out a haunched mortise and tenon, and cut both halves of the joint (see page 70-1 ).

3 Mitring the moulding

Trim the ends of the moulded sections to 45 degrees. Clamp a guide block over the moulding to keep the chisel blade at the required angle.

S TILE

When a rabbeted frame is also moulded, it is necessary to mitre the moulding ends after the mortise and tenons have been cut. A possible alternative method is to scribe one end of the moulding to cover the other; the scribing is relatively difficult, but it is better for disguising gaps if the joint should shrink.

1 Trimming mouldings

Before marking out the joint, cut away the moulding down to the level of the rabbet, leaving a flat edge on the stile equal to the width of the tenon plus the haunch. Similarly, trim the moulding off the rail, back to the shoulder line.

SCRIBING THE MOULDING

Leave the stile moulding cut square as described in stage / (see left). Mitre the end of the rail moulding, then, using a gouge and straight chisel, pare away the wood on the inside of the mitre until it fits around the contour of the stile moulding.

Mitre the moulding

Pare the mitred end with vertical cuts

On the majority of tables, two rails are joined to a single leg at each corner. The joints are cut as previously described, except that the ends of the tenons are mitred where they meet inside the leg. To make tapered chair frames, however, either the side-rail mortises must be cut at an angle, or the tenons are skewed to fit square-cut mortises.

Mortising MachineProportions Haunched Tenon

Barefaced tenon

Skewed tenon

Angled mortises

A stronger joint results if you keep the tenons in line with the rails. Mark out each joint in the usual way, but mark the shoulders at an angle to fit the face of the leg. You may find it easier to cut the mortise if you make a simple jig that holds the leg at the required angle, so that you can keep your chisel blade or drill vertical when cutting the joint.

Barefaced TenonBarefaced Tenon

Using barefaced tenons

Design a frame with barefaced tenons if you want the rails to lie flush with the legs.

Barefaced tenon

Skewed tenon

Skewed tenons

Since it is easier to cut square mortises, it may be more convenient to skew the tenons. However, the inevitable short grain makes for relatively weak joints, so keep the angle to a minimum. It is impossible to mark skewed tenons with a mortise gauge, so use a sliding bevel and marking knife instead.

Joint Marking Knife

CORNER JOINTS

FOR ROUND LEGS

C J

t

It is easier to cut the

Î 1

mortises before you turn

« i

a round leg. Having cut

11 L

|<

the tenons, trim the

S

\

shoulders with a gouge

to fit the curve.

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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Responses

  • emaan
    When are sloping haunched mortise and tenon joints used?
    6 years ago
  • mira
    How to cut a mortise joint?
    5 years ago
  • Madihah
    Why is a scribe/haunched mortise and tenon used?
    5 years ago
  • virginia
    How to make a through wedged mortise and tenon?
    4 years ago
  • COURTNEY
    How to make mortise and tenon joints?
    4 years ago
  • tarja
    How to cut a haunched mortise and tenon for french doors?
    4 years ago
  • milena
    How to mark out a scribed tenon?
    4 years ago
  • tesmi
    Is a hand chopped mortise a better joint?
    4 years ago
  • Leonie
    What is the purpose of the haunch in a haunched mortise and tenon?
    2 years ago
  • junior
    How to cut a tenon with marking gauge marks?
    2 years ago
  • Olga Helkovaara
    How to mark and cut a haunched and mortise joint with a mitre?
    2 years ago
  • Fiori
    Where is a haunched mortise and tenon used and what proportions are used in forming the joint?
    9 months ago
  • baldovino fanucci
    How to use Mortise gauges?
    6 months ago

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