Preparing the Stock

Copc-and-stick bits, by industry convention, arc designed to work with Winch stock. This is a standard stock thickness in most areas of the United States and Canada. If you buy dressed stock, you should have no problems.

There is some leeway in the bit design, comfortably about inch cither way, but as much as '/h inch cither way if you really stretch it. The typical sticking bit is designed to produce a Vw-inch cut and leave a tongue '/h inch wide as the groove's panel-retaining wall. If your stock's f JuT^il

POSITIONING THE. STICKING CUT

thickness dictates it, you can shift the position of the cut slightly to either reduce the profile width and increase the groove wall's thickness or vice versa. That's the leeway.

If you find yourself with stock that's a 16th light or heavy, you'll still be okay. With 'Mfrinch stock, you'll be able to finesse the bit height to produce a panel-retaining wall that's Va to '/« inch thick without noticeably affecting the profile. And if your stock is thicker, say, 'Me. inch, you can hold the width of the profile while increasing the groove-wall thickness (which might be considered a plus).

The usual wood specs apply: Use defect-free, straight-grained lumber.

We usually take such provisos with a grain of salt, and you can get away with using slightly bowed or twisted stock for a frame-and-panel unit so long us it isn't a door. If rhe wood in a frame-and-panel unit is warped, the unit will be warped. If the unit is a structural part of case, it will be anchored to other elements that will pull it into line and hold it there. But if it is a door, it won't hang flat, and you won't be able to conceal that.

For doors, the stock must be flat, straight, and true.

Dress the chosen stock to whatever thickness you've settled on. Rip it to width, and crosscut it to rough lengths for rails and stiles. You can trim the rails to final length after making the sticking cut. Trim the stiles after assembly. Make several extra pieces to use for testing the setups (and to replace the good piece that gets screwed up along the way). Finally, set aside one length of the working stock so you can make a coped backer for the sled you use when making the copc cuts.

FRAME-AND-PANEL CONSTRUCTION 201 -

BIT DRAWER

FREUD RAIL-AND-STILE BIT SET

QUARTER - ROUND

BEAD

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ROMAN 0«t

MLCS STACKED RAIL AND-STILE BIT

CASCADE STILE-AND-RAIL SET

AMANA REVERSIBLE

ASSEMBLY

STRMCUT UVIL

There arc three styles of cope-and-stick cutters on the market: the two-bit set, the assembly, and the stacked bit.

All these styles arc marketed in an assortment of profiles: bead, quarter-round, ogee, cove-and-bead (sometimes called classical), and bevel (sometimes called traditional or straight). All. however, cut a groove Yi inch wide and Yk inch deep.

A 1 Vi-horsepower router has enough power to drive one of these bits, and it can be run at full speed. While some bit makers offer these sets or assemblies on 16-inch shanks, it's a much better proposition to buy them on Vi-inch shanks.

Solid two-bit sets. With two-bit sets, one of the bits makes the stick cut and the other makes the cope cur. The Freud set is typical.

The profile cutter is an integral part of the shank, while the bearing and the slot cutter arc separate parts, secured on an arbor projecting from the bit. The sticking cutter has a bearing mounted on the tip, so it can be used to make curved cuts, as is required to make arched rails. The cope bit has the bearing mounted between the profile cutter and the groover.

One difference between the Freud bits and most of the other two-bit sets is their bulk. The chip-limiting design of the Freud bits requires a larger body. (See "Bit Drawer" on page 29 for more about these bits.)

Cascade markets a slightly different style of two-bit set. The profile and slot cutters arc integral pans of Cascade's SY-brand bits. There's a bearing mounted on the tip of both the sticking and cope

FREUD RAIL-AND-STILE BIT SET

MLCS STACKED RAIL AND-STILE BIT

AMANA REVERSIBLE

ASSEMBLY

bits, but it is positioned to work against a template, not the work iLself. For straight cuts, the bit must be used with a fence. The plus of this design is that you can work stock up to 1 inch thick. The minus is that you must use a template to make curved sticking cuts.

The overall advantage of the two-bit set is that you don't have to break down the bit to switch from one cut to the other. For those who do lots of framc-and-panel work, this means that two

CASCADE STILE-AND-RAIL SET

STICKING PR0FILL5 AVAILABLE.

STRMCUT UVIL

QUARTER - ROUND

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ROMAN 0«t

Iroucers can be set up, one for <ach Hit. This makes the switch &?m sticking to coping even easier.

Reversible assembly. Typical !ci the assemblies is the one from ¡Amana. It consists of an arbor nth an integral shank, two remov-ihle cutters—one for the profile, the other the slotter—and a ¡bearing. When setting up the assembly for sticking cuts, you mount the slotter directly against the profile cutter, and position | Ae bearing at the tip. Just like the set's sticking bit. To set up the ¡assembly for the cope cut. you turn the profile cutter over, and separate it from the slotter with the bearing. Again, just like the :scope bit.

Amana's assembly is a more [compact bit. and it is supplied ttiih a selection of brass shims |jou use to adjust the fit of the jMit. The shims usually aren't ¡needed until after the cutters have been resharpened a time or two. [ The advantage of the assem-|Hy—the cost difference aside—is the perfectly matched cuts. Since wuare using the same cutters to producc both the cope and the | sicking cuts, they're guaranteed to match. The disadvantage, of I course, is that you have to dismantle the bir when switching from one cut to the other.

Stacked bit. A third, seldom-| seen, style of bit is the stacked bit. Iheone I've seen is like an assembled bit with an extended arbor | and a second profile cutter. Stacked on the arbor are a profile cutter, a Ax cutter, the bearing, and another profile cutter. To cut sticking, you rat* the bit to its maximum height: the upper profile cutter is above lie work. To switch to a cope cut, ¡5011 lower the bit. so the lower profile cutter is below the router luble mounting plate.

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Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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