X

Finishing Characteristics of Common Woods (a)

Sped«*

Pore Structure

Fresh-Ptaned Color (b)

Natural Color Change (<)

Sandabilityand Minimum Final Grit (d)

Stainability

Effect of Clear Finish

Ash

Pore sue: Large Location: Eatiywood only: creates »eiy strong grain patterns.

Glass-smooth finish: Filling required.

Sapwood: Pale tan to very light golden brown. Heartwood: Darter.

Slightly darker and more yellow-gold.

Difficult Stop at 120 grit Coarse grain helps to hide sanding scratches.

Good.

Challenging to make dark without using a multiple-step staining process.

Oil-based: Adds a warmer golden tone

Water-based: Color remains light

Butternut

Pore size: Medium. Location: Throughout. Glass-smooth finish: Filling required

Heartwood: Light greyish, greenish, or pinkish brown. Sapwood: White.

Lighter, to a uniform golden brown, and the pores lose their dark color

Easy to Medium. Stop at ISO grit Coarse grain helps to hide sanding scratches. Can contain fuzzy areas.

Excellent.

Stains dark easily with pigment stain or dye stain.

Oil-based: Darkens and enriches color. Water-based: Color remains light

Cherry

Pore si»: Small. Location: Throughout but more prominent in eartywood.

Glass-smooth finish: Filling not required.

Heartwood: Light pinkish to medium reddii brown. Sapwood: White.

Darker reddish brown, although the intensity can vary greatly

Medium to Difficult Stop at 180 grit. Higher grits are required to hide sanding scratches.

Mediocre

Prone to blotching (e) Pores appear as dark specks when stained, (e)

Oil-based: Darkens and enriches the colo». Water-based: Color becomes pale and washed out

Hard Maple

Pore si«: Very small. Location: Throughout Glass-smooth finish: Filling not required.

Sapwood: Very pale tan. Heartwood: Dark brown.

Slightly darker and more goiden.

Difficult Stop at 180 grit Higher grits are required to hide sanding scratches.

Mediocre.

Prone to blotching, (e) Pores appear as dark specks when stained, (e)

Oil-based: Adds a warmer golden tone

Water-based: Color remains light

Mahogany

Pore size: Medium. Location: Throughout Glass-smooth finish: Filling required.

Heartwood: Light to medium reddish brown. Sapwood: Light to medium reddish brown.

Usually less reddish, lighter, more golden brown.

Easy to Medium. Stop at 150 grit. The grain helps to hide sanding scratches. The density of different types of mahogany can vary widely.

Excellent.

Stains dark easily with pigment stain or dye stain.

Oil-based: Darkens and enriches the color. Water-based: Color becomes pale and washed out

Poplar

Pore six: Small. Location: Throughout Glass-smooth finish: Filling not required.

Sapwood: White. Heartwood: Green; sometimes tndudes dark purple or black streaks.

Sapwood: Golden brown. Heartwood: Dark brown.

Easy.

Stop 150 grit

Low density makes sanding go faster.

Mediocre

Prone to blotching (e)

Oil-based: Adds a wanner golden tone to sapwood and darkens the heartwood Water-based: Sapwood remains light; heartwood looks washed out

Red Oak

Pore size: Very laige. Location: Eartywood only: creates very strong grain patterns.

Glass-smooth finish. Filling required.

Heartwood: Tan to slightly pinkish brown. Sapwood. White.

Slightly darker and more goiden.

Medium. Stop at 120 grit Cows« gram helps to hide sanding scratches.

Good.

Challenging to make dark without using a multiple-step staining process.

On-based: Adds a warmer golden tone.

Water-based: color remains light

Black Walnut

Pore size: Medium. Location: Throughout Glass-smooth finish: Riling required.

Heartwood: Dark greyish brown with purple highlights, (f) Sapwood: Greyish brown to white.

Lighter and more golden brown.

Medium Stop at 150 grit Coarse grain helps to hide sanding scratches.

Excellent

Stains dark easily with pigment stain or dye stain.

Oil-based: Darkens and enriches the color. Water-based: Color becomes pale and washed out

White Birdi

Pore size: Small. Location: Throughout Glass-smooth finish: Filling not required.

Sapwood: Pale, slightly goiden brown Heartwood: Dark brown.

Slightly daiker and more golden.

Prone to blotching (e| Pores appear as dark specks when stained, (e)

Oil-based: Adds a warmer golden tone.

Water-based: Color remains light

White Oak

Pore size: Large. Location: Eartywood only; creates very strong grain patterns.

Glass-smooth finish: Filling npM

Sapwood: Tan to very light greyish brown. Heartwood: Darker.

Skghtty darker and more goiden.

Very Difficult. Stop at 120 grit Coarse gram helps to hide sanding scratches.

Good.

Challenging to make dark without using a multiple-step staining process.

On-based: Adds a warmer golden tone

Water-based: Color becomes pale and washed-out

White Pine

Pore size: None-coniferous, Location: NA

Glass-smooth finish: Filling not required.

Heartwood: Pale tan. Sapwood: Pale tan.

Slightly darker and more golden brown.

Easy.

Stop at 150 grit

Low density makes sanding go faster.

Mediocre

Prone to blotching (c) Eartywood is much more absorbent to stain and finish than latewood.

On-based: Adds a warmer golden tone

Water-based: Color remains light

Notes: a) The appearance of virtually any species of wood can vary widely, so exceptions to the notations will surely occur.

b) The preferred choice for color (heartwood or sapwood) is listed first c) Long-term exposure to direct sunlight causes many woods to fade.

d) Minimum final sanding grit for a clear varnish finish.

e) Wood conditioner minimizes blotching and specking, but makes the wood difficult to stain dark without using a multiple-step staining process.

f) Describes kiln-dried walnut. Air-dried walnut heartwood is medium brown with red and gold highlights.

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