Common Hardwoods

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B. White Oak

Uses: Indoor and outdoor furniture, trim, flooring, plywood and veneers Sources: United States and Canada

Characteristics: Straight, wide grain pattern, tan with yellow to cream tints. Quartersawing reveals wide medullary rays. Naturally resistant to deterioration from UV sunlight, insects and moisture. Workability: Machines easily with sharp steel or carbide blades and bits. Not prone to burning when machined. Drill pilot holes first for nails or screws. Finishing: Takes stains and clear finishes like red oak, but narrower pores reduce the need for filling Price: Moderate to expensive

C. Hard maple

Uses: Indoor furniture, trim, flooring, butcher block countertops, instruments, plywoods and veneers Sources: United States and Canada

Characteristics: Straight, wide grain with occasional bird's eye or fiddle-back figure- Blonde heartwood.

Workability: Difficult to machine without carbide blades and bits. Dull blades will leave bums.

Finishing: Takes clear finishes well, but staining may produce blotches Price: Moderate to expensive, depending on figure

D. Cherry

Uses: Indoor furniture, cabinetry, carving, turning, plywood and veneers Sources: United States and Canada

Characteristics: Fine grain pattern with smooth texture. Wood continues to darken as it ages and is exposed to sunlight.

Workability: Machines easily with sharp steel or carbide blades but is more prone to machine burns

Finishing: Takes stains and clear* finishes well

Price: Moderate

E. Walnut

Uses: Indoor furniture, cabinets, musical instruments, clocks, boat-building, carving

Sources: Eastern United States and Canada

Characteristics: Straight, fine grain. Moderately heavy. Color ranges from dark brown to purple or black

Workability: Cuts and drills easily with sharp tools without burning Finishing: Takes natural finishes beautifully Price: Moderate

A. Red Oak

Uses: Indoor furniture, trim, flooring, plywood and veneei-s Sources: United States and Canada

Characteristics: Straight, wide grain pattern with larger pores. Tan to reddish pink in color. Quartersawing reveals narrow medullary rays. Workability: Machines easily with sharp steel or carbide blades and bits. Not prone to burning when machined. Drill pilot holes first for nails or screws. Finishing: Takes stains and clear finishes well, but pores will show through if painted unless they are filled Price: Moderate

F. Birch

Uses: Kitchen utensils, toys, dowels, trim, plywood and veneers Sources: Umted States and Canada

Characteristics: Straight grain with fine texture and tight pores. Workability: Machines easily with sharp steel or carbide blades and bits. Good bending properties. Drill pilot holes first for nails or screws. Finishing: Takes finishes well, but penetrat ing wood stains may produce blotching

Price: Inexpensive to moderate

G. Hickory

Uses: Sporting equipment, handles for striking tools, furniture, plywood and veneers

Sources: Southeastern United States

Characteristics: Straight to wavy grained with coarse texture. Excellent shock-resistance.

Workability: Bends well, but lumber hardness will dull steel blades and bits quickly. Resists machine burning. Finishing: Takes stains and clear finishes well Price: Inexpensive where regionally available

H. Aspen

Uses: A secondary wood used for drawer boxes, cleats, runners and other hidden structural furniture components. Crafts. Sources: United States and Canada Characteristics: Indistinguishable, tight grain pattern Workability: Machines easily with sharp steel or carbide blades and bits. Finishing: Better suited for painting than staining. Tight grain provides smooth, paintable surface. Price: Inexpensive

I, White ash

Uses: Furniture, boat oars, baseball bats, handles for striking tools, pool cues, veneers

Sources: United States and Canada

Characteristics: Straight, wide grain pattern with coarse texture. Hard and dense with excellent shock-resistance.

Workability: Machines easily with sharp steel or carbide blades and bits. Drill pilot holes first for nails or screws. "Green" ash often used for steam bending. Finishing: Takes stains and clear finishes well Price: Inexpensive

J. Poplar

Uses: Secondary wood for furniture and cabinetry, similar to aspen. Carving, veneers and pulp for paper. Sources: United States

Characteristics: Fine-textured with straight, wide grain pattern. Tan to gray or green in color.

Workability: Machines easily with sharp steel or carbide blades and bits. Not prone to burning when machined. Drill pilot holes first lor nails or screws. Finishing: Belter suited for paint ing than staining. Tight, gram provides smooth, paintable surface. Price: Inexpensive

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