Oak Cabinets Stepbystep

PHOTO A: Cut % x %-in.-deep rabbets in the top and bottom of the side paneis for the upper cabinet, and cut % x %-ln.-deep rabbets in the top and bottom of the side paneis for the iower cabinet Also cut % > %-in.-deep rabbets in the ends of the top and bottom panels for the iower cabinet. Use a router and straight bit to make the cuts. Clamp pieces of %-in.-thick scrap on each side of the workpiece, and clamp a straightedge cutting guide for the router to follow.

PHOTO B: Cut notches in the ends of the upper cabinet's top and bottom panels. Stop the cuts before the blade cuts past the end line of the cuts, and finish the cuts with a hand saw or jig saw. The notches create a % x %-in. tab that fits over the front edge the side panei on the upper cabinet, creating a recess beiow for the cabinet door frames.

Build the cabinet carcases

The upper and lower cabinets in this project are built using the same basic principles and techniques used to make kitchen cabinets and other forms of casework. Except for the back panels and the bottom panel of the lower cabinet (which is hidden by drawers and thus made of plywood), all the panels used to make the carcases are made from glued-up strips of red oak.

O Create edge-glued panels for the sides, top and bottom of the upper cabinet, and the sides and top of the lower cabinet . We used i'4 x 4-in. red oak to make the panels. Plane the individual boards down to slightly more than 34 in. thick before jointing, ripping to width and square, and gluing them up. Note: If you have a surface planer with more than a 15-in. width capacity, you can plane down all the panels after the glue-up. We used biscuits for alignment and to reinforce the glue joints. If you're gluing up long panels and then cross-cutting the individual parts to length, plan the biscuit layout so the biscuits don't cross the cutting lines.

© Rip-cut, cross-cut and plane the panels to finished size for the carcase parts. Also cut a bottom panel for the lower cabinet from %-in. plywood. Cut %-in. x %-in.-deep rabbets in the top and bottom edges of the side panels for the upper cabinet. Cut %-in. x %-in.-deep rabbets in the top and bottom edges of the side panels for the lower cabinet, as

PHOTO A: Cut % x %-in.-deep rabbets in the top and bottom of the side paneis for the upper cabinet, and cut % x %-ln.-deep rabbets in the top and bottom of the side paneis for the iower cabinet Also cut % > %-in.-deep rabbets in the ends of the top and bottom panels for the iower cabinet. Use a router and straight bit to make the cuts. Clamp pieces of %-in.-thick scrap on each side of the workpiece, and clamp a straightedge cutting guide for the router to follow.

PHOTO B: Cut notches in the ends of the upper cabinet's top and bottom panels. Stop the cuts before the blade cuts past the end line of the cuts, and finish the cuts with a hand saw or jig saw. The notches create a % x %-in. tab that fits over the front edge the side panei on the upper cabinet, creating a recess beiow for the cabinet door frames.

Workpiece

PHOTO C: Drill she if pin holes in the sides of the upper cabinet, using pegboard as a template. Orient the guide the same way on facing sides to ensure that the holes are aligned.

PHOTO D: Cut Va x Win. rabbets Into the back edges of the side, top and bottom panels to create recesses for the back panels. We used a router with a piloted rabbet bit

PHOTO C: Drill she if pin holes in the sides of the upper cabinet, using pegboard as a template. Orient the guide the same way on facing sides to ensure that the holes are aligned.

PHOTO D: Cut Va x Win. rabbets Into the back edges of the side, top and bottom panels to create recesses for the back panels. We used a router with a piloted rabbet bit

Piloted rabbet bits

Piloted router bits have a bearing or a fixed spindle that follows the edge of a board as yop cut, allowing the cutters to engage the wood and maintain a uniform depth of cut without the need for a straightedge guide. Piloted rabbet bits, like the one shown above, aré generally available in sizes that will cut rabbets ranging from XM in. to ty in. deep.

well as in the ends of the top and bottom panels. The carcase joints in the lower cabinet tire double-rabbet joints, and the upper carcase uses single-rabbet joints. We used a router with a :14-in. straight bit to cut the rabbets (See Photo A).

© The top and bottom panels in the upper cabinet ext end past the front edges of the side panels by H in. to create a recess for the flush-mounted cabinet doors (which are attached with hinges to the front, edges of the side panels). The front edges of the top and bottom panels should overlay the edges of the side panels. For this reason, cut a 3'S-in.-wide notch that start s at. the back of the top and bottom panel, on each end, and stops M in. from each front edge. Draw an outline of the waste material being removed at each end of the top and bottom panels, then set up your table saw and cut most of" the way from the back to the front. Stop the cut short of the end line and finish it with a hand saw or jig saw. Cut into the end of each panel to remove the waste, leaving a %-in.-wide tab at each front end (See Photo B).

© Drill two rows of holes for adjustable shelf pins in each side of the upper carcase. We used a piece of perforated hardboard (pegboard) for a drilling template (See Photo C). Our plan called for shelf pins made from 14-in. doweling, so we drilled 14-in.-dia, x %-in.-deep holes. We spaced the holes 1 in. apart on-center to allow for maximum adjustability. But if you do a little planning up front, you can eliminate most of the holes (and their "knock-down" look) by planning your shelf height and drilling only one or two holes for each shelf pin. Use a portable drill guide with a

Clamps Assemble Cabinet Carcass
PHOTO E: Assemble the carcases for the upper and lower cabinets. Use pairs of bar or pip« clamps and wood cauls to draw the panels together. Positioning the back panel in the back pane! recess serves as a helpful reference for squaring the carcase.
PHOTO F: Attach the foot blocks to the corners of the piywood base with glue and screws. Note the screw slots cut Into the pi tit form for attaching the base to the lower cabinet carcase.
PHOTO G: Cut the pattern shapes in the base trim pieces. We used a jig saw. Wait until you've cut the miters before making the contour cuts so you can be sure each cutout shape Is centered and the correct distance from the ends of the trim piece.

depth stop to ensure t he holes are perpendicular and the same depth.

© Cut Vi x Va -in. rabbets in the back edges of the sides, top and bottom of each cabinet. This will create M-in.-deep recesses for the back panels when the carcases are assembled. Use a router with a R-in.-dia. piloted rabbet bit to make the cuts (See Photo D). Since the rabbets can run the full lengths of the parts, a table saw with a dado-blade set also could be used.

© Cut the back panel to size for each cabinet from V4-in. piywood.

O Finish-sand the carcase parts. Glue and clamp together the carcases fnr the upper (See Photo E) and lower cabinets. Set the back panel in the recess at the back of each cabinet (without glue) to help square them up. Also check for squareness by measuring across the diagonals. Adjust: the clamps as necessary. Use wood cauls to distribute the clamping pressure evenly. After the glue has cured, remove the clamps, then tack the back panels into the recesses with 1-in. wire nails.

Build the base structure

Unlike kitchen cabinets that are attached permanently, movable cupboards, cabinets and hutches require some type of sturdy base structure for support. For our oak cabinets, we decided to build a simple plywood platform supported by four square legs. The structure is trimmed with profiled red oak. And because wood movement is an issue with solid-wood cabinets like those shown here, we cut screw slots in the platform so the screws used to

Chicken Nesting Box Dimensions Building

PHOTO H: The trim pieces wrap around the base structure, adding décoration and "feet" to the cabinets. Use 4d finish nails and gjue to attach the mitered trim pieces. Drill pilot holes for the nails (you can remove the head from a finish nail and chuck it into your drill If you dont have a drill bit small enough for the job). Set nails with a nailset

PHOTO i: Attach the base to the underside of the lower cabinet with screws and washers. The screw slots in the platform allow the screws to move as the wood moves.

PHOTO H: The trim pieces wrap around the base structure, adding décoration and "feet" to the cabinets. Use 4d finish nails and gjue to attach the mitered trim pieces. Drill pilot holes for the nails (you can remove the head from a finish nail and chuck it into your drill If you dont have a drill bit small enough for the job). Set nails with a nailset

PHOTO i: Attach the base to the underside of the lower cabinet with screws and washers. The screw slots in the platform allow the screws to move as the wood moves.

attach the lower cabinet to the base structure can move with the wood.

©Cut. a piece of V2-in. construction-grade plywood the same dimensions as the plywood bottom panel tor the lower cabinet (if all you have: on hand is 34-m. plywood, you may use that instead, but be sure to subtract W-in. from thn height of the foot blocks that attach to the platform). Cut four W-in.-wide x ]-in.-long screw slots, running front-to-back, about 4 in. in from each corner of the bottom platform board.

©Cut four hardwood foot blocks, ll^-in.-square x 4MJ-in.-long. Apply glue, then drive a countersunk wood screw through the platform and down into each foot block (See Photo F).

©The trim boards for the base feature an ogee profile, cut with a router, along the top edges and decorative cutouts on the bottom to create "feet" for the base. They are mitered together- at. the front corners. To make the trim pieces, rip-cut to 5H in. wide a :44-in.-thick strip of red oak that's at least. 72 in. long.

Allen wrench for driving threaded insert ,

Threaded insert--T

PHOTO J: Leveier feet are attached to the foot blocks to protect the floor and to allow you to adjust the height of the cabinet to conform to u 11 evenness In the floor.

Groove for bottom panel

Double-rabbet joint

Joining Plywood

PHOTO l: The giued double-rabbet joints used to construct the drawer boxes are strong enough that no additional reinforcement is needed. Do not use giue or fasteners to secure the drawer bottom, which is inserted into the inside grooves prior to drawer assembiy.

Double-rabbet joint

PHOTO l: The giued double-rabbet joints used to construct the drawer boxes are strong enough that no additional reinforcement is needed. Do not use giue or fasteners to secure the drawer bottom, which is inserted into the inside grooves prior to drawer assembiy.

PHOTO K: The sides, front and back for each drawer can be cut from a singie 8 ft. iong strip of Vi m. piywood. By cutting the groove for the drawer bottom before cross-cutting the parts, you can ensure that the groove will line up on aii four parts.

(D On a router table, rout an ogee profile along the top edge of the workpiece, using a %-in. ogee bit.

© Cut the three base trim pieces to length, mitering the ends to form the front joints and making square cuts on the back ends of the side pieces. Make the mitered cuts on a table saw, using a miter gauge, or with a miter box (hand or power).

(£) Enlarge the Base pattern from page 135 to size and transfer it to the front of each trim piece, starting 234 in. from each end (reverse the pattern for the right side of each cutout). Cut out the shapes along the waste sides of the lines with a jig saw or scroll saw (See Photo G). Sand or file the edges smooth.

© Attach the trim to the base. Apply glue to the front and side edges of the plywood, the outside faces of the foot blocks, and the mitered corners of the trim. Use 4d finish nails to fasten the trim to the foot blocks and the edges of the plywood. Set the nails below the surface of the wood with a nailset (See Photo H). Make sure the bottom edges of the trim are flush with the bottoms of the foot, blocks (the tops of the trim pieces should extend ¥4 in. past the top of the plywood platform).

Attach the lower cabinet to the base

© Turn the lower cabinet carcase upside-down and screw the base structure to the carcase bottom through the centers of the slotted holes, using #8 x IVi-in. wood screws with washers (See Photo I). Drill pilot holes into the bottom of the lower cabinet.

© Install foot leveler hardware into the bottom of each foot block. First, find the centerpoints in the bottoms of the foot blocks by using a miter square or a straightedge to draw diagonal lines connecting the corners. Drill guide holes for the threaded inserts, according to the manufacturer's specifications. Then insert the threaded inserts and thread the leveler feet into the inserts (See Photo J).

Make & hang the drawers

The lower cabinet is fitted with two large drawers for convenient storage. If it better meets your needs, you could replace the drawers with shelves and cabinet, doors, as in the upper cabinet. To save on materials cost, we made the drawers out of plywood, then attached a solid-oak drawer front to each drawer.

© Hip-cut two 8-in.-wide strips from an 8-ft.-long sheet of Vi-'m. plywood to make the drawer

PHOTO M: Make 10° bevel cuts on all four sides of each drawer front face to create raised panels. Install a tall auxiliary fence and clamp a guide board onto the back of the panel high enough so it will ride on top of the auxiliary fence as you feed the workplece Into the blade.
PHOTO N: Attach the drawer fronts to the drawers with screws driven through the front, inside face of the drawer box and into the back face of the raised-panel drawer front. Hang the drawer boxes first so the drawer fronts will be perfectly positioned.

sides, front and back (one strip is enough material to make all four parts for each drawer). Cut a V\ x 1/4-in. dado in one face of each strip, Yi in. up from the bottom edge. This will be the groove to hold the drawer bottom. The dado can be cut on a table saw or a router table.

© Cross-cut the drawer sides, fronts and backs to length (See Photo K).

© On the ends of each of the drawer sides, cut Va x W in. rabbets on the inside faces for double-rabbet joints.

© Cut the drawer bottoms to size from V4-in. plywood or hard-board.

@ Glue and clamp the drawer boxes together, with the bottoms captured in (but not glued into) their grooves (See Photo L).

© Ilang the drawer boxes inside the lower cabinet. Use two full-extension, 14-in. metal drawer slides for each drawer. Follow the hardware manufacturer's instructions for positioning the slides, and be sure to allow for the 8% x 34 (/¿-in. drawer fronts that will be attached to the drawer boxes.

© Cut the drawer faces to size. Youll need to glue up two strips of oak if you don't have any stock that's wider than 8 in.

© Cut a raised panel bevel into each drawer front on the table saw. Tilt the saw blade to 10°, and set the cutting height to 2 in. Set the rip fence r/i6 in. away from the blade (the tilt of the blade should be facing away from the rip fence). Make a bevel cut along all four edges of each drawer front. Using a feather-board and a tall auxiliary fence, make a test cut into 34-in. scrap: The top of the bevel cut should form a square ledge about v\g in. wide (roughly the thickness of the saw blade), as shown in the Drawer front diagram on page 135. Adjust the blade tilt or cutting height as needed until the profile of the cut is correct. Cut all four edges of each drawer front to create a raised center panel (See Photo M).

© Attach the drawer fronts to the drawer boxes. First, hang the drawer boxes in the lower cabinet. Then, position the drawer fronts against the drawers and adjust them until they are centered on the drawer openings and there is a gap of about Vie to Vii in. between the drawer fronts. Clamp the drawer fronts to the drawer boxes. Attach the drawer fronts by driving four #6 x 1-in. round-head screws, with washers, through the inside faces of

PHOTO 0: After the molding profile has been routed Into the edge of a wide, %-ln.-thick oak board, rip-cut a ^-In.-wide strip of the molding on the table saw. Repeat the process to make up as much molding as you'll need [about 13 lineal feet for the project as shown). This process is easier and safer than ripping the molding to width first and trying to feed narrow strips across a large cutter on the router table.

PHOTO 0: After the molding profile has been routed Into the edge of a wide, %-ln.-thick oak board, rip-cut a ^-In.-wide strip of the molding on the table saw. Repeat the process to make up as much molding as you'll need [about 13 lineal feet for the project as shown). This process is easier and safer than ripping the molding to width first and trying to feed narrow strips across a large cutter on the router table.

PHOTO P: Make dowel joints at all the rail/stile joints on each cabinet door, then glue the joints and assemble the door frames. Position a bar or pipe clamp beneath each rail location and use clamp pads to protect the wood.

the drawer boxes and into the backs of the drawer fronts (See Photo N).

Attach the cabinet trim

The bottom of the upper cabinet, the top of the lower cabinet and the front edges of the upper cabinet shelves are trimmed with 34 x 34-in. molding strips. We cut our own trim using a 34-in. ogee bit, but you could purchase premilled molding with a similar profile if you don't have a r outer- table.

© Plane oak stock to a thickness of 34 in. and square one edge on your jointer. Prepare enough stock to cut eight trim pieces of the following lengths: (2) 12 in.; (2) 18 in.; (4) 34 in.

© Mount a 34 -in. ogee bit into your router table and cut an ogee profile along the jointed edge of each piece of oak stock. On your table saw, rip-cut a 34-in.-wTide strip from the profiled edges of the stock (See Photo O). Repeat this to make up as much trim as you need.

© Miter-cut the molding to length to fit around the bottom edge of the upper cabinet and the top edge of the lower cabinet. Note that the molding on the upper cabinet is installed with the profile facing up, but on the lower cabinet and the upper cabinet shelves the profile faces down. Cut the adjustable shelves to size (if you haven't already). Attach the molding with glue and 114-in. wire nails. Note: To allow for wood movement, attach molding to the short sides of the top of the bottom cabinet with nails only—no glue. Set the nail-heads. Make sure the trim pieces are flush with the the top surface of the cabinet part to which they're being attached.

Make the upper ca8inet doors

We built glass doors for the upper cabinet to allow the cabinet to be used for display purposes. The doors consist of oak face frames and VS-in. tempered glass paneis.

^D Cut the door rails and stiles to size from M-in.-thick oak.

© The rails are joined to the stiles with butt joints reinforced by dowels. Arrange the rails and stiles for each door and mark the locations of the rails onto the stiles according to the Front elevation drawing on page 135. Lay out and drill holes for dowel joints, using a doweling jig,

© Assemble the door frames with glue and chimps (Sec Photo P). Check the diagonal measurements and adjust the clamps as needed to bring the frames into square.

© Kabbet the inside back edges of the door frames to accept the glass panels (See Photo Q). Use a i4-in. piloted rabbet bit to cut W-in.-wide x Vii-in.-deep rabbets all around both openings in each door. Scribe the corner s of the rabbet recesses with a straightedge and utility knife, and chisel out the corners unti 1 they're square.

© Lay out and cut mortises for 2VS-in. butt hinges on each door. We used three brass butt binges per door. The hinges are spaced 2 in. up from the bottom and 2 in, down from the top. The middle hinge is centered between the; top and bottom hinges. Trace around a hinge leaf on the door stiles to make cutting lines for the mortises. Before chiseling out the mortises, score along the

Router Ideas

PHOTO Q: Rout a Vnx %-in.-deep rabbet recess around the perimeter of each opening In the upper cabinet doors. Use a Vi-ln, piloted rabbet bit (See page 137) to make tin cuts. Square off the rounded corners left by the router btt, using a sharp chisel. To keep the wood from tearing, score along the chisel lines with a sharp knife before squaring the corners.

PHOTO Q: Rout a Vnx %-in.-deep rabbet recess around the perimeter of each opening In the upper cabinet doors. Use a Vi-ln, piloted rabbet bit (See page 137) to make tin cuts. Square off the rounded corners left by the router btt, using a sharp chisel. To keep the wood from tearing, score along the chisel lines with a sharp knife before squaring the corners.

PHOTO R: Chisel mortises for the hinges Into the Inside faces of the outer door stiles and Into the front edges of the cabinet sides. Use one of the leaves front the 2^-ln. butt hinges as a template for tracing the cutting Lines for the mortises.
PHOTO S: Miter-out the ends of the front crown molding strip and the front end of each side strip at 45° to make the crown maiding assembly that Is attached to the top of the upper cabinet. We used a simple crown molding miter jig to set up the cuts on our power m iter saw.

PHOTO T: Attach the crown frame to the top of the cabinet with screws and washers.The screw slots In the tops of the scrap wood backer frame allow for cross-grain expansion and contraction of the solid wood top.

edge of the cutting lines to keep the wood from splintering. Use a sharp wood chisel (the same width as the mortise, if possible) to cut out each mortise to a depth equal to the thickness of the hinge leaf (See Photo H).

© Position each cabinet door in the door opening, making sure the outside edge of each door is flush with the edge of the cabinet. Mark the locations of' the hinge mortises on the cabinet, then remove the doors. Lay out and cut hinge mortises aL the correct locations in the front edge of each cabinet side. Do not hang the cabinet doors yet.

Attach the crown molding

We framed the top of the upper cabinet with crown molding for a nice decorative touch. Although it's possible to make crown molding yourself, using a shaper or molding cutters in the table saw, we purchased premilled, SVkmii. red oak crown molding. If youVe never tried to make miter joints with crown molding before, you may want to pick up some inexpensive pine or mahogany molding to practice your cutting skills before you cut. into the oak stock. To simplify the process, we built a frame the same dimensions as the top of the cabinet, using scrap wood (we used t x 2-in. pine). Then, we attached the crown molding to the frame and mounted the assembly to the top of the cabinet. The main advantage to this method is that you can build the scrap frame so the corners are precisely square (no matter how careful you've been with the cabinet assembly, it's likely that the carcase is slightly out of square by this point, which will throw off the miter angles for the crown molding).

© Mitered joints on crown molding require tricky compound angles. We built a simple jig for our power miter saw and used it to accurately cut the corners of the molding (See Photo S), To build the jig, cut a wide board (10 in. or so) and a narrow board (2 in. or so) to about 1 ft. in length, and butt-join them together into an "L" shape. Re very careful that the narrow board (the fence of the jig) is perpendicular to the wider board. Set a piece of the crown molding into the jig so one of the flared edges on the back side of the molding is flush against t hi fence of the jig, and the other flared edge is flush against the surface of the wider board. Slide a narrow strip of scrap up to the leading edge of the crown molding as it rests on the wide jig board. Be careful not to dislodge the crown molding.

Cutting Backer Board For Crown Molding

PHOTO T: Attach the crown frame to the top of the cabinet with screws and washers.The screw slots In the tops of the scrap wood backer frame allow for cross-grain expansion and contraction of the solid wood top.

Mark the position of the narrow strip, then fasten it to the wide jig board with screws. To make a 45" miter cut, simply set your crown molding into the jig as shown, swivel your miter saw to 45" and make the cut. Be sure to use the inside dimensions of the crown molding when measuring.

© Attach the crown molding to the scrap wood frame with glue and. 4d finish nails driven into pilot holes. Drive a finish nail into each miter joint to lock the joint together-. Set all the nails below the surface with a nailset.

ij) Drill screw slots in the molding frame to attach it to the cabinet top the same way the base is attached to the lower cabinet. Attfich the crown molding assembly to the top of the cabinet, using #8 > lki-in. wood screws with washers (See Photo T).

Apply finishing touches

© Rip-cut scraps of your red oak stock into Vi x %-in. strips to make the glass retainer strips (you'll need about 22 Lineal ft.).

© Fill all nail holes with stain-able wood putty, then finish-sand all wood parts to 180-grit, easing any sharp edges as you work. Wipe the surfaces clean with a tack cloth, then apply your finish (we used medium walnut stain and tung oil).

dD Set the glass panels into the recesses in the cabinet doors, then attach the retainer strips on the inside of each recess, using 1-in. wire nails, to hold the panels in place (See Photo U). Install the door lunges, pulls and catches. Screw the lower cabinet to the upper cabinet (See Photo V).

Glass Panel Retainer Strip
PHOTO U: Set the glass panels In place In the doors and secure them with Vi x 3£-in. oak retainer strips. Use 1-ln. wire brads driven into pilot holes to fasten the strips to the inside edges of the rabbet grooves in the door frames.

PHOTO V; Screw the upper and lower cabinets together. Lay the cabinets down so their backs arc flush. Center the upper cabinet on the lower cabinet, side to side, and hold them tightly together. Drill countersink holes tor the screws {a tapered countersink hole Will allow the screws to draw the parts together tightly).

PHOTO V; Screw the upper and lower cabinets together. Lay the cabinets down so their backs arc flush. Center the upper cabinet on the lower cabinet, side to side, and hold them tightly together. Drill countersink holes tor the screws {a tapered countersink hole Will allow the screws to draw the parts together tightly).

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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