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V Grades generally determined on poorer face. * Source: A Guide to Hardwood Log Grading, Forest Service, U.S. Dept of Agriculture. $ On best face; reverse must grade No. 1 Common.

lumber. Tliis is one reason hardwoods are sokl in varying lengths and wkitlis.

Pine Ls graded and processed differently because softwoods are used primarily for construction. Rather than expect the builder or manufacturer to process the lumber, the mills do it and produce stock in standard wklilis and lengths.

"Whatever you do in hardwood grading, do die opposite in pine and you'll probably be doing die right diing," says William O. O'Kcllcy, chairman of the Haywood Community College wood pnxi-ucts department, which runs a sawmill and kiln. "With liardwoods. you try to put a defect on tlie edge so it can be ripped off. On framing lumber, you put the biggest defect in the middle where it will have least effect on strength."

Hardwood grades generally are based on the poorest quality face. With pine, the Ix-st face sets die grade for boards likely to be used by furniture makers. Mam- defects are prohibited in some grades of hard-wcxxls, but you can have a linle of every-thing in pine, aldiough the grade drops with the increased number of defects.

Pine graded for construction follows rules that would sound very familiar to a builder. There are bans on defects that would dcstniy die nailing edge, limits on how much pieces can be out of square, and standards that permit crooking to the degree that it can be removed with the pulling force of a nail.

For additional information, check Rules for Measurement of Hardwood and Qpress, ($6, NlflA Box 34518, Memphis, TN 38184, 901-377-1818), Standard Grading Rules for Soullxm Pine lumber ($5.25), and Grader's Manual for FUxtrds and Two-in. Dimension ($5) (both available from Southern Pine Inspection Ikireau, 4709 Scenic Highway, Pensacola, FL 32504,904-434-2611).

These technical manuals won't make anyone's top 10 list for exciting reading, but they do contain a lot of interesting information on various species as well as concise definitions for defects and odier woodworking terms. The pine manuals offer a rundown on types of knots and how they affect the strength and appearance of boards. —D.B.

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