HowTo Work with Waterbased

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The cure for the dull color of the "dry" sample in the top photo is a coat of finish. As you can see here, the rich look of the dye comes right back.

dye into the finish and leave you with a muddy, streaked look. It's easy to avoid this by first sealing in the dye with a coat of shellac or wiping varnish.

When the finish goes on and the deep, even color of the dye and the grain of the wood come together, you'll see why water-based dyes can be a great choice. 01

An added benefit of water-based dyes is that the color can be removed with common household bleach.

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Questions & Answers

Use a #8x 2" Fh woodscrew in 3W stock for screwing into end grain or the edge of plywood

Fastening two layers of V material calls for a #6x V screw

Use a #8x 2" Fh woodscrew in 3W stock for screwing into end grain or the edge of plywood

Fastening two layers of V material calls for a #6x V screw

A #10 x 3~ screw comes in handy for mounting a project to the wall

The workhorse screw in my shop is a#8x r%" Fh woodscrew

A #10 x 3~ screw comes in handy for mounting a project to the wall

The workhorse screw in my shop is a#8x r%" Fh woodscrew

Drive #6 x 1" screws into the edge of '/¡'plywood or '/i"-thick hardwood end grain

Drive #6 x 1" screws into the edge of '/¡'plywood or '/i"-thick hardwood end grain

How to

Choose the Right Screw

Q After looking through a project's materials and supplies list, I noticed you use several sizes of screws. How do you know which size and length are right?

Grant Johmtm W/r.newrJta, Minnesota

A There are two things to consider in selecting the gauge and length of a screw. First, you need to think about the material you are driving the screw into. The other thing is how much stress the joint will face. This creates a bit of a balancing act between screw size and material.

But i don't want to have to get a different screw size for every type of joint that I'll encounter. I've found that five different screws handle most of the assembly tasks in my shop (photo above).

the basic screw. The screw size I use most often is a #8 x V/i" flalhead woodscrew. There are a couple of reasons why this is such a favorite. For one, most of the projects 1 build use %" hardwood and plywood. This screw penetrates deeply (Vi when screwing two layers of material together without poking through to the other side.

Another thing I like about this screw is the shank is beefy enough to resist breaking and the deep threads prevent pull out.

THIN STOCK. As handy as this screw is though, it won't work in every situation. For example, projects using V stock call for another size.

For starters, the screw is just too long. And I find that the large shank isn't necessary for a secure grip. Here I find #6 x V screws do the trick,

END GRAIN. These two screws are perfect for screwing parts face to face. But that's not the only type of screw joint that you'll come across. What if you need to drive a screw through one piece and into hardwood end grain or the edge of a piece of plywood?

There are a couple of problems you can run into in these situations. The first is that neither end grain nor the edge of a plywood panel offers as much holding power as the face grain. What happens is the short-grain material between the threads tends to crumble as the joint is stressed.

The other thing that can go wrong is that the screw can act like a wedge and split the workpiece.

To solve the first problem, I use longer screws than t do for face-to-face fastening. In 3/4"-thick material, I like to use a 2"-long #8 screw. In 1/2" stock, a 1" or a 11/t"-!ong #6 works best.

The solution to the second problem lies in drilling the correct pilot hole. To prevent splitting, I size the hole to match the shank and drill the pilot hole a little deeper than the length of the screw.

MOUNTING screws. There's one other size of screw that I like to keep on hand. And that's a #10 x 3" screw. While I don't often use them for assembly, they do come in handy for attaching a cabinet or shelf to a wall. These screws can support a lot of weight and are long enough to penetrate into a wall stud. 09

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hardware & supplies

F Sources


One of the nice things about making the loft bed is that most of the supplies you need to build it are pretty common. But there are a few items to point out.

To provide sure footing on the ladder, we applied strips of 2"-wide tread tape to the steps. The tape is made by 3M and is available at many hardware stores and home centers.

The lVie"-dia. aluminum tubing used in the railing is made by National Manufacturing and is found at most True Value hardware stores. Other stores and home centers carry (or can order) similar products. To drill the holes to fit the tubing, you'll need a matching bit. Ours came from Lee Va//ey (06J71.17)

You'll also need to track down some plastic laminate. The color we used is "Holly Berry" (D307-60) and is made by Wilson Art. You can find a local distributor from the contact information shown at right.


There isn't much hardware you'll need to build the mirror frame on page 34. The mirror we ordered is V thick. And since the edges of the mirror are exposed in the frame, we asked our local supplier to polish the edges. To secure the mirror, we used Gardner Mirror Mastic and Mastic Tape that we found at a local home center.

Finally, the 1"-wide traction tape applied to the feet is made by 3M and can be found at hardware stores and home centers.


Whether it's around the shop or in a furniture project, rare-earth magnets will come in pretty handy. The two sources we rely on are Lee Valley and K&J Magnetics. You'll find the contact information in the margin. At the websites, you can find magnets, washers, cups, and accessories in a variety of sizes. Both the magnetic belt clip (50K19.01) and standoff tool holder (50K18.01) came from Lee Valley.


A router inlay kit, like the one shown on page 14, takes the hard work out of adding inlay to your projects. We've included several sources in the margin. The kit we used included a centering post and came from (Woodstock H3133).


It doesn't take much time to put a sharp edge on a dull Forstner or brad point drill bit. And one way to make the job go even faster is to use diamond needle files. You can buy them individually or as a set. The 600-grit files came from the Woodsmith Store.


The small "pocket" planes shown on page 10 aren't lightweights when it comes to versatility. Either the Veritas or Lie-Nielsen plane would make a great addition to your shop. The planes are available from the makers and the sources in the margin.


The grain-popping effect of water-based dyes can really add to the look of a project. The Lockwood's dyes I like to use camefromthe Woodsmith Store. You can also order them directly from the manufacturer. Other brands of water-based dye are available from the sources shown in the right margin. E3

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Project supplies may he ordered fi-orn. the fallowing companies:

Woods mi til Store 800-444-7527 woodsmi thy tore. com

Dianivml Needle Files, Lui-Nielsen ßlwk Planes, Router Inlay Kit, Water-Bated Dyes

Rockier 800-279-4441 rodder, com

Rare-Earth Magnets & Aecexxaries, Ruut«r Inlay KU, Water-Bwml Due»

Lee Valley 800-871-8158

Forstner Bit, Rare-Earth Magno» & Accessories, Veritas Black Plane, Water-Baaed Dyes

Woodcraft 800-225-1153

Lie-Niel neu Block PUmet, Ritm-Enrth MqgMifi Ranter hilay Kit, Water-Kami Dye»

lie-Nielsen Toolworks 800-327-2520

Block Planes

W. D. Lockwood 866-293-8913 I ii

Water Based Dyee

Homestead Finishing 216-631-5309

Water-Based Dyes

K&J Magnetics 215-343-8343 kjmagnetics .com

Ra re-Earth Magnets & Accessories

WilsonAi t 800-433-3222

Plastic Laminate

Amazon Took & Hardware

Dianunul NeeMe. Files, Router Inlay Kit

•~Thickness of key is about V} width of tenon

Hole for key is set back from face of mortise

Key should take just a light tap t< draw the joint tight details of craftsmanship

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