HowTo Cut a Lid from a

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A Partial Cut. Start by setting the blade V32" below the thickness of the sides. Then position the rip fence to align the blade with the layout line and cut around all four sides of the box.

Remove Lid. Next, use a utility knife to cut through the remaining bit of wood.

Sand Smooth. A piece of san-paper on a flat surface can be used to smooth the cut edges.

Construction Table Saw

Armchair

This chair will be at home in a variety of settings. And since it relies on simple construction techniques, it's easy to build.

To many woodworkers, building a set of chairs can be intimidating. There are a lot of parts, angles that must be cut and fit, and when you're all done, they have to be both strong and comfortable to sit in.

While the chair you see in the photo above presents some unique challenges, building it really isn't very difficult. Like most woodworking projects, you just need to break it down into smaller steps.

The straightforward joinery and construction means there aren't a lot of complicated angles to deal with. Even the mortises for the slats in the back of the chair are easy to cut once you know how. And you'd think that cutting the mating tenons on the ends of the curved slats would be difficult. But I'll show you an easy technique that eliminates the guesswork.

Building chairs can take your woodworking skills to the next level. And the end result is a project that's sure to be a hit in your home.

Armchair

Pattern for curved back slats on page 23

For details on fitting the foam cushions, see page 27

Elastic chair webbing makes for a comfortable seat

Mortise and tenon joinery ensures strength and stability clips tightly

Band Saw Box Patterns

Arms attach to back legs with screws

Hardwood plug conceals screw

Tapered back legs are rough-cut on band saw and smoothed with a template-guided router

Front legs are tapered on two inside faces

Pattern for legs on page 22

Furniture glides protect bottoms of legs

CHAIR FRAME

CONSTRUCTION

Front legs are tapered on two inside faces

For details on fitting the foam cushions, see page 27

Arms attach to back legs with screws

Hardwood seat frame is constructed with half-lap joinery

Elastic chair webbing makes for a comfortable seat

Pattern for legs on page 22

Furniture glides protect bottoms of legs

BECHES

OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 22V2"Wx l&W'D x 305/a"H

Hardwood plug conceals screw

Mortise and tenon joinery ensures strength and stability clips tightly

CHAIR FRAME

Mitered tenons provide plenty of strength to leg joints

CONSTRUCTION

Pattern for curved back slats on page 23

Tapered back legs are rough-cut on band saw and smoothed with a template-guided router

Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram (for one chair)

B Front/Back Rails(2) 1x2-19'/2

H Seat Frame Front/Back(2) 3/4x3-20 I Seat Frame Sides (2) 3k x 3 - \1V2

(4!£ ft.) 2" Chair Webbing (8) Metal Webbing Clips (20) #8 x 11/4" Fh Woodscrews (8) #6 x s/s" Fh Woodscrews (2) #10x1%" Fh Woodscrews

(1) 2"-thick High Density Foam 17'/2x 20 (1 yd.) Batting (1 yd.) Muslin (1 yd.) Upholstery Fabric (4) 1"-dia. Furniture Glides

VA" x 7'A" - 72" Hard Maple (7.3 Bd. Ft.)

VA" x 7'A" - 72" Hard Maple (7.3 Bd. Ft.)

7%" x 3%" - 48" Hard Maple (2.5 Bd. Ft.)

7%" x 3%" - 48" Hard Maple (2.5 Bd. Ft.)

3A" x 3V2" - 48" Hard Maple (1.2 Bd. Ft.)

3A" x 3V2" - 48" Hard Maple (1.2 Bd. Ft.)

3A" x 71A" - 48" Poplar (2.4 Bd. Ft.)

Shaker Table Woodsmith

ON-LINE EXTRAS

Mortises for slats are cut after final shaping of leg

Wbodsmtth

To find full-size patterns of the chair back legs and slat, go to: www.woodsmith.com

Front edge of leg c) BACK SLAT

Vi" roundover on edges,^

V2" x V/2" mortises for rails are cut in blank before leg is cut to shape

BJ BACK RAIL

REAR LEG

-Tenons on rails are mitered for maximum glue strength

NOTE: Legs are cut from TA"-thick J hardwood, slats are cut from 7%"-thick hardwood, and back rail is cut from 1"-thick hardwood.

SECTION VIEW

Once these are done, you're ready to make the mortises for the back slats (detail 'a'). Then you can turn your attention to the back rail that connects the legs.

RAIL. The back rail has a tenon on each end. The only thing special here is that the ends of the tenons are mitered (detail V). After cutting the tenons, you can begin working on the back slats.

This will help you lay out the mortises for the rails and do the final shaping later at the router table.

Before you cut the legs to shape, however, you'll need to cut the mortises for the back and the two side rails (detail 'b'). This is easier to do while you've got straight, square edges to use as a reference. The box below will help you with making the mortises and shaping the legs.

The strength of this chair begins with the solid back frame. It's made up of two gently tapered legs connected by a rail and four back slats using mortise and tenon joinery. The drawing above shows how it all goes together.

LEGS. The legs start out as a rectangular blank. I made a W-thick hardboard template using the pattern shown in the left margin.

Use template to trace outline of leg on blank mortising bit

SECTION VIEW

A mortising machine makes quick work of drilling all the mortises for the chair. Turn to page 40 for some helpful tips and tricks.

Rail Mortises. Making the mortises for the rails is easier to do before cutting the leg to shape. The two mortises will intersect to accept the rails' mitered tenons.

Patterns For Band Saw Boxes

Slat Tenons. Cut the top and bottom shoulders with a dado blade. First, cut one shoulder, then flip the workpiece to cut the second.

Band Saw Box Patterns

Cut to Shape. Use the band saw to rough out the shape of the slat, staying close to the pattern lines while making a smooth cut.

Table Saw Techniques Woodworkers

Offset. Set the blade height to cut the outer tenon cheek. Flip the workpiece and reset the blade height to cut the opposite cheek.

STEP FOUR

SLAT

Table Saw Tricks

Sand Smooth. A large-diameter sanding drum removes the saw marks and creates a smooth curve on the front face.

Table Saw Techniques

BACK SLAT PATTERN

Box And Lid Template Pattern

Leg template /

Template

■Flush LEG trim bit

— Cut to waste side of template

How-To: Make the Slats

Slat Tenons. Cut the top and bottom shoulders with a dado blade. First, cut one shoulder, then flip the workpiece to cut the second.

Offset. Set the blade height to cut the outer tenon cheek. Flip the workpiece and reset the blade height to cut the opposite cheek.

You can see in the pattern below that the four slats are gently curved. And they have a tenon on each end to mate with mortises in the rear legs (detail 'a/ opposite page).

Cutting tenons on the ends of a curved workpiece would present quite a challenge. So, just as I did with the legs, I decided to start with a rectangular blank and cut the tenons before cutting the slat to shape. The boxes at right will step you through the entire process.

PATTERN. The first thing I did was make a paper pattern for each slat. You can copy the pattern above for this, or you can download a full-size pattern from Woodsmith.com. I used spray adhesive to attach the pattern to the blank. This way, it's easy to lay out the tenons before stepping over to the table saw.

TENONS. To cut the tenons on the ends of the slats, I used a dado blade in the table saw. I started by cutting the top and bottom shoulders of the tenon. It's just a matter of cutting one side, then flipping the work-piece over to cut the other.

The next thing to do is form the cheeks of the tenons. But there's one thing to point out here. Since the tenon is on the end of a curved workpiece, it won't be centered on the end of the blank. But after you cut the slat to shape, the tenon will end up centered on the slat. So you need to reset the blade height after cutting one cheek to create the offset tenon.

CUT TO SHAPE & SMOOTH. Now, you're ready to shape the slats. I did this on the band saw, being careful to make a smooth cut close to the pattern lines. A large sanding drum helps remove the saw marks. I finished the slats by adding a roundover on each edge at the router table and then hand sanding them smooth.

ASSEMBLY. With the slats and rail done, you can dry-fit the back frame. Now is the time to check that the joints are snug and come together without gaps. Once you're happy with the assembly, go ahead and apply glue and clamps and make sure everything is square. Then you can set it aside and turn the page to start to work on the rest of the chair.

BACK SLAT PATTERN

Cut to Shape. Use the band saw to rough out the shape of the slat, staying close to the pattern lines while making a smooth cut.

Sand Smooth. A large-diameter sanding drum removes the saw marks and creates a smooth curve on the front face.

Bit bearing rides on template ! END edge i VIEW

Flush Trim. Smooth the leg to final shape with a flush trim bit mounted in your router table.

Band Saw to Shape. With the hardboard template in place, cut the leg to rough shape.

STEP FOUR

SLAT

Sand front and to a smooth gentle curve i i I

Now that the back frame assembly is complete, you're ready to move on and complete the chair frame. You'll start by shaping the front legs and connecting them to the back with rails. Next will come two arms and the corner brackets to help reinforce everything and make a stronger frame.

FRONT LEGS. You can see in the drawing above that the front legs complete the frame. But they also have a tenon at the top that fits into a mortise in the arms.

Just like the rear legs, the front legs have two intersecting mortises to accept the front and side rails. And, as before, it's easier to lay them out and drill them on a rectangular blank before cutting the legs to their final shape.

FRONT LEG

45° miter each

%" counterbore

Corner Brackets For Tables

Corner blocks are glued and screwed in place-..

#8x11A" Taper waste Fh woodscrew V J CORNER BRACKET

FRONT RAIL©

Taper waste

W-dia. face-grain wood plug

NOTE: Mortises and tenons on front legs are cut before tapering leg to shape

BOTTOM VIEW

NOTE: Front legs are 24V2 made from 1V4"-thick hardwood, rails and corner brackets are made from 1"-thick hardwood, and arms are made from -thick hardwood

BOTTOM VIEW

TOP SECTION VIEWy

-1

%

- V2

(r)ARM

\

1 \

Va

s

Bevel inside edge of arm to match taper of leg

FRONT LEG

TOP SECTION VIEWy

Vs"

roundover

FRONT LEG

FRONT SECTION VIEW

45° miter each

%" counterbore

NOTE: For details on tapering the front leg, turn to page 29

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