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NOTE: Back ends are made from 1" -thick stock. Sea t ends are made from 3M"-thick stock

With the end frames of the futon complete, you can now build the last two frames: the back frame and the seat frame. The two frames are hinged with carriage bolts, washers and nuts so that they can pivot together to change from sofa to bed.

In the drawing above, you can see that the frames are very similar to each other. They share the same joinery and look. Whaf s different is some of the sizes of the stock and the shape of the ends. The other difference is the back frame holds the futon operating hardware.

Like the end frames, the back and seat frames are built with solid joinery so the frames form rigid platforms for both sitting and sleeping. To do this, I used dado and tongue and groove joints.

BUILDING THE BACK FRAME. I started with the back frame because it determines the size of the seat frame. The first thing to do is cut the back ends (H) to size from 1"-thick stock. The ends need to be this thick to allow for the length of the pin for the futon hardware that will be attached later, as shown in the drawing on the opposite page.

On the inside faces of each end I cut a pair of dadoes sized to hold 3/4"-thick rails. Then a centered 1U"-dia. hole is drilled near the bottom for a hinge pin that joins the back frame to the seat frame (detail 'c'). The last step is to roundover (Vs"-radius) the top end of each piece.

Next, I made the back rails (I). There's not much to these. All you need to do is cut a VV'-wide slot along the inside face (detail 'a'). The slot will hold the slats that support the mattress. Once the rails are built, you can go ahead and assemble the frame with Confirmât screws. These screws have deep threads for a strong connection into end grain. And the heads match the knock-down bolt heads in the end frames.

With the basic frame together, the next thing to do is cut and attach a pair of cleats (f). The cleats reinforce the slats and provide a place to screw the slats down. Screw the cleats to the rails so that the top of the cleat is flush with the edge of the groove.

Now you're ready to complete the frame by making the slats (K). They're nothing more than short

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