Section

to shape with a drawknifc and finish with a spokeshave, scraper and a light sanding. (Sec Fig. 4.) If you make your spindles from sawn stock, select only the very straight-est grain. You can turn the spindles on a lathe if you like, but it's difficult to turn such slender pieces, and I find I can whittle a perfect spindle about six times faster than I can turn one.

I make my spindles slightly longer than their finished length. The unfinished length of the three center and two bracing spindles is 23 in.; the next pair is 22 in.; the last pair is 20 in. As you shape each spindle, test the size of the upper end by passing it through a %-in. hole drilled in a waste block that simulates the -Vfe-in. spindle holes in the bow. The first 3 in. to 4 in. (after the taper stops) should pass easily, but not loosely, through the test hole.

I make the legs from birch. Maple is also a good choice. Avoid ring-porous woods such as ash or oak. They won't turn as crisply and their open pores show through the finish. I rive the turning billets direcdy from the log to ensure that the grain follows the length of the piece. If you saw your stock, make sure the grain is as straight as possible. Turn the legsaccoixJing to the dimen sions in Fig. 4. Also, mark a layout line near the top of the leg's taper to indicate where the sockets for the side stretchers will be drilled.

You can make the leg tenons a simple, straight cylinder with a shoulder or a more sophisticated taper that 'locks'' itself in the scat sockets. (See Fig. 4.) A little pressure (like a person's weight) causes this joint to tighten like a morse taper. Tapered tenons are easy to turn, but you'll need a reamer to form the corresponding tapered hole in the seat. If you're making a tapered joint. I suggest you drill and ream a test hole in a block of 2-in. thick softwood. When turning the leg tenon, remove it from the lathe to check the tenon's lit. and correct the fit it necessary. It's important that you fit the tenon to a hole made bv your reamer.

Assembling Ijegs and Stretchers

The leg tenons fit into sockets in the underside of the seat. I drill these holes with a brace and bit because it's slow enough to give me complete control. I prefer to use a spoon bit, an ancient but marvelous cutter whose cutting speed is regulated by pressure. Spoon bits can also

Windsor Tenon Cutter

FIG. 3: OVAL-BACK WINDSOR CHAIR

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